Eco Study Guides

Human Ecology

Study Guide

Test 1

This study guide is not designed to give you all of the answers.  If you complete it and read the chapters you should have an understanding of the material need for the test.

Chapter 1:  Introduction to Environmental Science

A.    What is Science

1.      Know what science is.

2.      Know what a theory is.

3.      Know what a hypothesis is.

4.      Know what empirical evidence is

5.      Know what is meant by an observation.

6.      Know what determines a good hypothesis.

7.      Know what  the scientific method is

8.      Know all of the steps to the scientific method

9.      Identify how the scientific method can be used day to day.

10.  Know what an experiment is designed to do

11.  Know what a controlled experiment is and how to set one up.

12.  Be able to define:

q  Control

q  Variable

13.  Know what pseudo science is and how it is different from real science.

B.     What is Human Ecology

1.      Know what happened on Easter Island.

2.      Know if environmental issues are affected by political, social, and economic concerns.

3.      Know what an ecological footprint represents.

4.      Know what sustainable development is and be able to apply it

5.      Know what unsustainable development is

6.      Know how economics, politics, population, and technology affect the environment

7.      Recognize both pro-environmental organizations and anti-environmental including Wise-Use

C.     Ethics

1.      Be able to define:

q  Ethics

q  Environmental ethics

q  Environmental justice

2.      Know the theories of environmental ethics

q  Anthropocentric  (human centered)

q  Biocentric  (life-centered)

q  Ecocentrism  (environment centered)

Chapter 2:  Economics and Policy

1.      Know what is meant by the term “Tragedy of the Commons” & Common Property Resource

2.      Know what causes “Tragedy of the Commons”

3.      Be able to define and give examples of:

a.      Internal costs

b.      External costs

c.       Source: ( “goods” or “resource”)

d.      Sink (“ecological services”)

4.      Know what are the characteristics of neoclassical economics

5.      Know what are the differences between the economy and the environment

6.      Know what is meant by the statement “All economies are subsystems of the earth’s natural resources “

7.      Know what is meant by non-market value

8.      What problems do developing countries face when trying to manage their resources

Chapter 9:  Natural Resources

1.      Know what in old growth forest is.

2.      Know what a secondary growth forest is

3.      Know what  the underlying threats to  rainforests  are(i.e.. poverty, etc)

4.      Know what are the direct threats to rainforests are (i.e. logging, ranching etc).

5.      Know what the effects of deforestation are.

6.      Know the reasons why the developing countries being harvest their forests.

7.      Know what problems are caused by clear-cutting a forest (soil erosion etc)

8.      Know what problems face many prized fisheries and how these problems can be solved.

Chapter 3: Chemistry & the Environment

1.      Know what matter is.

2.      Know what makes up elements.

3.      Know that elements cannot change (ever) although they can combine with other elements and pass through various chemical reactions and processes

4.      Know what an atom is

5.      Know what the smallest unit of an element is.

6.      Know what a molecule is

7.      Know what a compound is

8.      Know what an organic molecule is

9.      Know what low pH and high pH means

10.  Know what the law of conservation of mass means and how to apply it

o   Mass cannot be created or destroyed

11.  Know what the term energy means.

12.  Know what the law of conservation of energy means and how to apply it

o   (Energy can not be created or destroyed)

o   Know what the law of entropy means and how to apply it.

o   When converting from one form of energy to another some useful energy is lost

o   Energy is lost as heat

13.  Know what kinetic energy is and be able to recognize examples.

14.  Know what potential energy is and be able to recognize examples.