APII Study Guide Home Page



  1. Respiratory System

1.2     Define the terms:

1.2.1 ventilation

1.2.2 internal respiration

1.2.3 external respiration

1.2.4 inspiration

1.2.5 expiration

1.3     Describe the Law of Partial Pressure (Dalton’s Law)

1.4     Describe the function of hemoglobin

1.4.1 Describe the Hb-oxygen dissociation or affinity curve

1.4.2 Identify what factors can move the dissociation curve. (I do not care about which direction just that it these factors can move it)


1.4.3 Describe how carbon monoxide affects Hb affinity.

1.4.4 Describe the pH shift (Bohr Effect)

1.4.5 Describe the CO2 Loading Effect (Haldane Effect)

1.5     Describe what internal respiration is, where it occurs, and what happens to carbon dioxide and oxygen.

1.6     Describe what external respiration is, where it occurs, and what happen to carbon dioxide and oxygen.

1.7     Describe the mechanism that exchanges carbon dioxide and oxygen.  

1.8     Describe how carbon dioxide is carried in the blood.

1.9     Describe the relationship how the following controls ventilation:

1.9.1 CO2

1.9.2 H+

1.9.3 pH

1.10 Identify where the highest levels of CO2 and O2 can be found

1.11 Describe high hypoventilation and hyperventilation affects

CO2  + H2Û H2CO3 Û H+  + HCO3-

1.11.1    CO2

1.11.2    H+

1.11.3    pH

1.12 Describe the pressure/volume relationship (Boyle’s Law)

1.13 Describe what atmospheric pressure does in exchanging air during inspiration

1.14 Describe the stage of ventilation

1.14.1     List the stages involved in inspiration in order

1.14.2    List the stages involved in expiration in order

1.15 Identify the respiratory volumes and the lung capacities. (Identify them on the chart but also describe what they mean)

1.15.1    inspiratory  reserve volume

1.15.2    tidal volume

1.15.3    expiratory reserve volume

1.15.4    residual volume

1.15.5    inspiratory capacity

1.15.6    functional residual capacity

1.15.7    viral capacity

1.15.8    total lung capacity

1.15.9    dead space

2.      Cardiovascular System

2.1.   Intrinsic/Extrinsic Control of the Cardiac Cycle

2.1.1.         Be able to describe the intrinsic/extrinsic control of the cardiac cycle

2.1.2.         Describe what is happening to the heart during diastole and systole

2.1.3.         Define the term cardiac cycle (remember it is per beat)

2.1.4.         Describe what heart sounds control

2.1.5.         Describe to the stages of the cardiac action potential and refractory period.

2.1.6.         Describe how it slowly depolarizes

2.1.7.         Describe what happens when it reaches threshold

2.1.8.         ha5lf1913_aKnow how this differs from a skeletal muscle action potential in terms tetnus.








2.1.9.         Describe the structures and locations (in order) involved in the conduction system of the heart and what do they do:

·                  SA node

·                  AV node

·                  bundle of His

·                  Purkinje fibers

2.1.2.         Describe how the parasympathetic system affects heart rate

2.1.3.         Describe how the sympathetic system affects heart rate.

2.2.   ECG

2.2.1.         Describe the stages of an ECG and describe what is happening to the heart during each deflection (Know when each of the chambers is repolarizing and depolarizing)

·                  What does a P wave record

·                  What does the QRS wave record

·                  What does the T wave record

2.2.2.         Describe what is happening in the intervals between the waves.

On the test most students have problems with relating these cardiac principles together

2.3.   Principles of the Cardiovascular System

2.4.   Define the term stroke volume

2.4.1.                        Describe what factors affect stroke volume.

2.4.2.                        Define end diastolic volume

2.4.3.                        Define end systolic volume

2.4.4.                        Define stroke volume as an equation with end diastolic volume and end systolic volume.

2.4.5.                        Describe what happens to stroke volume when the heart rate is dramatically increased.

2.4.6.                        Describe Starling’s Law of the Heart is and how it affects stroke volume and cardiac output.

2.4.7.                        Define the term heart rate   List which factors can extrinsically affect the heart rate.   Describe the affect of the sympathetic system on heart rate   Describe the affect of the parasympathetic system on heart rate specifically how the Vagal nerve affects the heart rate.

2.5.   Define the term cardiac output

2.5.1.                        Describe cardiac output as a factor of stroke volume and heart rate

2.5.2.                        Describe the factors that affect cardiac output.

2.5.3.                        Describe what happens to the cardiac output when the heart rate gets too high

2.6.   Define the term peripheral resistance

2.6.1.                        Describe the factors that affect peripheral resistance.

2.6.2.                        Describe how smooth muscle affects resistance

2.6.3.                        Apply peripheral resistance to the systemic and pulmonary circuit and relate it to the size of the ventricle

2.6.4.                        Define the term vasodilatation and vasoconstriction and relate them to peripheral resistance

2.7.   Define the term blood pressure

2.7.1.                        Describe what factors and hormones affect blood pressure

2.7.2.                        Describe how blood pressure changes across the systemic circulation

2.7.3.                        Describe blood pressure as an equation using cardiac output and resistance

2.8.   Describe how cardiac output, stroke volume, peripheral resistance and blood pressure interact

2.9.   Follow the path of blood throughout the heart and into the lungs