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STUDY GUIDE TEST 2

URINARY, ELECTROLYTES & Ph BALANCE

nephron

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  1. Nephron Anatomy

1.2     Identify the structures of the nephron and be able to put them in order

              Glomerular capsule (Bowmans capsule)

              Renal corpuscle

              Proximal convoluted tubule

              Descending limb of the loop of Henle

              Ascending limb of the loop of Henle

              Distal convoluted tubule

              Collecting duct

1.3     Identify the blood vessels and be able to put them in order

              afferent arteriole

              glomerulus

              efferent arteriole

              peritubular capillaries

              vasa rectus

1.4     Identify the structures that complete the juxtaglomerular apparatus

  1. Urine Formation

2.2    List the functions of the kidney

2.3     List the stages of urine formation

                     glomerular filtration

                     tubular reabsorption

                     tubular secretion

2.4     Identify what stage of urine formation occurs in each section of the nephron

                     Glomerulus

                     Glomerular capsule (Bowmans capsule)

                     Proximal convoluted tubule

                     Descending limb of the loop of Henle

                     Ascending limb of the loop of Henle

                     Distal convoluted tubule

                     Collecting duct

2.5     Describe the mechanism that occurs in each stage of urine formation including:

                     Active transport

                     Osmosis

                     Facilitated transport

                     Diffusion

                     Hydrostatic pressure

2.6     Glomerular filtration

2.7     Describe glomerular filtration

2.7.1        Identify where glomerular filtration occurs

2.7.2        Identify what is likely to be found in the filtrate.

2.7.3        Describe the function of the filtration membrane in relation to glomerular filtration

2.7.4        Define net filtration pressure in terms of:

2.6.5        Define the term glomerular filtration rate

2.6.5.1  List the factors the affect glomerular filtration rate

2.6.5.2  Describe the intrinsic controls of glomerular filtration rate

2.6.6        Describe the affect of blood pressure on glomerular filtration rate.

2.6.7        Describe how the net filtration pressure affects the glomerular filtration rate.

2.6.8        Describe how the diameter of the afferent arteriole and efferent arteriole affects the net filtration pressure.

2.6.9        Describe how vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles affects the net filtration pressure and the glomerular filtration rate.

2.6.10    Describe how vasodilatation of the afferent arterioles affects the net filtration pressure and the glomerular filtration rate.

2.6.11    Describe the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus in relation to the glomerular filtration rate.

2.8     Tubular Reabsorption

2.8.1        Describe tubular reabsorption 

2.8.2        Identify where tubular reabsorption  occurs

2.8.3        Identify the section of the nephron where most of the water is reabsorbed and all of the  glucose reabsorbed

2.8.4        Define the term Tm means and what happens when a substance in the fluid is higher than its Tm

2.8.5        Describe the mechanism that creates the osmotic gradient at the loop of Henle. 

2.8.6        Identify which region of the kidney the osmotic gradient occurs.

2.8.7        Describe the countercurrent mechanism.

2.8.8        Where does the countercurrent mechanism occur

2.8.9        Describe the movement of water in the loop of Henle

2.8.10    Describe the movement of sodium in the loop of Henle

2.9     Tubular Secretion

2.9.1        Describe tubular secretion 

2.9.2        Identify what material (i.e. H+ etc) are secreted.

2.10 Hormones

2.10.1    Describe how ADH (antidiuretic hormone) works and what affects it and what factors it affects (i.e. blood pressure, solutes etc)

2.10.2    Describe how atrial natriuretic peptide works

2.10.3    Describe what renin does and what affects it and what factors it affects (i.e. blood pressure, solutes etc).

2.10.4    Describe what aldosterone does and what affects it and what factors it affects (i.e. blood pressure, solutes etc).

2.10.5    Identify what gland secretes:

                     ADH

                     Renin

                     Aldosterone

                     Describe angiotensin I and angiotensin II

3.      Electrolyte and Acid/Base Balance

3.2     electrolytes

3.2.1        Describe the term electrolytes

3.2.2        Describe what is meant by electrolytes in equals electrolytes out.

3.2.3        Describe how electrolyte and water levels are related.

3.2.4        Identify the hormonal controls of electrolyte and water levels

3.3      pH

CO2  + H2 H2CO3 H+  + HCO3-

In order to answer some of the questions you will want to be able to write this out. Understand how this changes if you breathe fast or if you hold your breath.

3.3.1        Identify the sources of hydrogen ions

3.3.2        Define the term buffer

3.3.3        Identify the different buffer systems

3.3.4        Which is the most important buffer system

3.3.5        Describe the relationship between CO2, H+ and pH

3.3.6        Describe the following buffer relationship:  CO2  + H2 H2CO3 H+  + HCO3-

3.3.7        Describe how the buffer reaction is related to ventilation

3.3.8        Describe what happens when CO2 or H+ is removed from this equation

3.3.9        Describe how the buffer reaction relates to blood pH

3.3.10    Relate pH to hydrogen ion concentration

3.3.11    Describe how the kidneys and respiratory system affect blood pH.

3.3.12    Identify the first line of defense against pH shift

3.3.13    Identify the second line of defense against pH shift

3.3.14    Compare and contrast the first line of defense (buffers) and the second line of defense (renal and respiratory) against pH shift.