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STUDY GUIDE TEST 1

ENDOCRINE, REPRODUCTIVE & DEVELOPMENT

 

1.      Endocrine System

1.1.   Define the term hormone

1.2.   Describe the characteristics of receptor tissue and what it needs to respond to a specific hormone.

1.3.   Describe how hormone concentrations are controlled.

1.4.   Describe how negative feedback system work

1.5.   Describe how positive feedback systems work.

1.6.   Describe how second messenger system works

1.6.1.      Identify what type of hormone activates second messenger systems

1.6.2.      Describe where the second messenger hormone binds

1.6.3.      The second messenger works  inside the cell although the hormone binds outside of the cell

1.7.   Describe how direct gene activation works

1.7.1.      Identify what type of hormone activates direct gene activation system

1.7.2.      Describe where the hormone for direct gene activation binds.

1.8.   Compare and contrast the difference the actions of protein hormones and steroid hormones

1.9.   Be able to identify the major glands of the endocrine system

1.10.                    Describe why the posterior pituitary is not considered a true endocrine gland

1.11.                    Be able to list the hormones released from the following glands:

              Hypothalamus

              Anterior pituitary

              Posterior pituitary

              Thyroid

              Parathyroid

              Pancreas

              Adrenal gland

o       Adrenal cortex

o       Adrenal medulla

              Pineal Gland

              Gonads

 

1.12.                    Be able to describe the activities and control mechanisms of the following hormones: (draw out flow charts)

1.12.1.  From the hypothalamus

                  Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone

                  Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone

                  Prolactin-Releasing Hormone

                  Prolactin-Inhibiting Hormone

                  Corticotrophin-Releasing Hormone

                  Thyrotrophic-Releasing Hormone

1.12.2.  From the pituitary

1.12.2.1.        Anterior pituitary

                       Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

                       Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone

                       Follicle stimulating Hormone

                       Luteinizing Hormone

                       Growth Hormone

                       Prolactin

1.12.2.2.        Posterior pituitary

                       Antidiuretic hormone

                       Oxytocin

1.12.3.  Thyroid

                       Thyroid Hormone

                       Calcitonin

1.12.4.  Parathyroid

                       Parathyroid hormone

1.12.5.  Pancreas

                       Glucagon

                       Insulin

1.12.6.  Adrenal gland:

                       Aldosterone

                       Glucosteriods

                       Androgens

                       Epinephrine

1.13.                    Describe the relationship between insulin and diabetes

1.14.                    Identify the type of cells that produce insulin

2.      Meiosis/Gametogenesis

2.1.   Describe the stages of meiosis

2.2.   Describe the function of meiosis in terms of the number of chromosomes

2.3.   Describe the purpose behind in terms of reproduction and genetic variability

2.4.   Describe the stages and function of crossing over

2.5.   Compare and contrast the stages and products of oogenesis and spermatogenesis

3.      Male Reproduction

3.1.   Describe the stages of spermatogenesis

3.2.   Describe the stages of spermogenesis

3.3.   List the organelles found in the mature sperm

3.4.   Calculate the number of chromosomes found in mature sperm.

3.5.   Describe the relationship between the location of the testes and health of the sperm.

3.6.   Describe the activities of following hormones in terms of where they are produced, what they do and how they are controlled.

              follicle stimulating hormone

              luteinizing hormone

              testosterone

3.7.   Describe the effects low levels of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone have on male fertility.

3.8.   Describe the problems that are associated with the prostate gland

3.9.   Describe the mechanisms that control testosterone production

4.      Female Reproduction

4.1.   Describe the stage of oogenesis

4.1.1.      Describe a polar body

4.1.2.      Contrast polar bodies and oocytes

4.1.3.      Calculate how many polar bodies are possible if the oocyte is fertilized.

4.1.4.      Identify when a primary oocyte becomes a secondary oocyte and when it becomes an ovum.

4.1.5.      Calculate the chromosome number of the oocyte

4.2.   Describe the activities of following hormones in terms of where they are produced, what they do and how they are controlled.

              follicle stimulating hormone

              luteinizing hormone

              estrogen

              progesterone

4.3.   Describe the effects low levels of follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone have on female fertility.

4.4.   Relate oogenesis, the ovarian cycle, the uterine cycle and the levels of hormones.

4.5.   Describe the function of the corpus luteum is and how is maintained before and after implantation and for how long

4.6.   Identify the hormone levels that initiates menstruation

4.7.   Describe what happens on the first day of the menstrual cycle

5.      Development

5.1.   Describe the stages of fertilization

5.2.   Describe the location of fertilization

5.3.   Describe the sequence of development

5.4.   Compare and contrast:

              ovum

              zygote

              embryo

              fetus

5.5.   Describe what causes the formation of identical and fraternal twins

5.6.   Describe the term etopic pregnancy

5.7.   Identify the tissues that form the placenta

5.8.   Describe the function of the placenta.

5.9.   Compare and contrast the function of the corpus luteum and the placenta

5.10.                    List the functions of the embryonic membranes

              Chorion and Chorionic villi

              Yolk sac

              Amnion

              Embryonic disc

              Germ layers

5.11.                    Identify the basic tissues formed from the:

              ectoderm

              endoderm

              mesoderm