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FINAL STUDY GUIDE

DIGESTIVE & IMMUNE & CUMULATIVE MATERIAL

1.      Digestion

1.1.   Describe where food goes from the time it enters the mouth until it leaves

1.2.   Describe the function of the:

1.2.1.      Mouth

1.2.2.      Pharynx:  Nasopharynx, Oropharynx,

1.2.3.      Esophagus

1.2.4.      Stomach

1.2.5.      Small intestine

1.2.6.      Large intestine

1.2.7.      Liver

1.2.8.      Gallbladder

1.2.9.      Pancreas

1.2.10.  Hepatopancreatic ampulla

1.2.11.  Pyloric sphincter

1.2.12.  Esophageal or cardiac sphincter

1.2.13.  Gastric glands

1.3.   Identify which organs belong to the digestive tract

1.4.   Define these terms-

1.4.1.      Digestion

1.4.2.      Mastication

1.4.3.      Ingestion

1.4.4.      Absorption

1.4.5.      Secretion

1.4.6.      Bolus

1.4.7.      Chyme

1.5.   List the stages of swallowing and peristalsis

1.6.   Identify  what is released by:

1.6.1.      Chief cells

1.6.2.      Goblet cells

1.6.3.      Parietal cells

1.7.   Identify  where the function and location of:

1.7.1.      HCl

1.7.2.      Amylase

1.7.3.      Gastrin

1.7.4.      Cholecystokinin

1.7.5.      Trypsin

1.7.6.      Pepsin

1.7.7.      Pepsinogen

1.7.8.      Salivary amylase

1.7.9.      Bile

1.8.   Identify what is digested in the mouth & what enzyme is involved. (What material does that enzyme work on)

1.9.   Identify what is digested in the stomach & what enzyme is involved.

1.10.                    Describe what is peristalsis is and what direction each muscle moves.

1.11.                    Describe what happens when these muscles contract.

1.12.                    Identify how the sphincters in the stomach prevent regurgitations and what happens when the sphincters are weak.

1.13.                    List what material is secreted into the small intestine and through which sphincter

1.14.                    Describe the function of villi in the small intestine is.

1.15.                    List the layers of the digestive tract from the mucosa to the serosa (in order).

1.16.                    Identify which layer is responsible for absorption of nutrients from the lumen

1.17.                    List the effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system on digestion.

1.18.                    Describe the exocrine and endocrine functions of the pancreas.

1.19.                    Identify the causes of heartburn.

 

2.      Immune System

2.1.   Describe the function of the immune system

2.2.   Describe the difference between non-specific and specific defense systems.

2.3.   Describe what is normally considered a defense against disease and infection

2.4.   Non Specific Defense

2.4.1.      Describe what is meant by nonspecific defense response

2.4.2.      Describe what is meant by the first line of defense

2.4.3.      Describe what is meant by mechanical barrier

2.4.4.      Describe what is meant by the second line of defense

2.4.5.      Describe the stages and function of inflammation

2.4.6.      Describe what causes redness, heat, pain, and swelling

2.4.7.      What is meant by a mechanical and chemical barriers to disease

2.5.   Specific immune response

2.5.1.      List the characteristics of the adaptive immune response

2.5.2.      Describe what is meant by a specific immune response

2.5.3.      Define the term immunocompetency.

2.5.4.      Describe the terms antigen and antigenic determinant mean

2.5.5.      Describe the term antibody

2.5.6.      Describe the function of an antibody

2.5.7.      Describe the formation of antibodies

2.5.8.      Describe the relationship of antibodies to DNA and describe how genes affect the immune response

2.6.   Describe the function of the following lymphocytes:

2.6.1.      B-cells

2.6.2.      T-cells

2.6.3.      Plasma cells

2.6.4.      Memory cells

2.6.5.      Antigen presenting cell

2.7.   Identify which type of immunity involves B-Cells

2.8.   Identify which type of immunity involves T-Cells

2.9.   Describe the stages of antibody-mediated immunity or humoral immunity (B-Cells)

2.9.1.      List the steps for the primary immune response

2.9.2.      Describe the steps of the secondary immune response

2.9.3.      Compare and contrast primary and secondary immune responses.

2.10.                    Compare and contrast passive and active immunity

2.11.                    Compare and contrast naturally acquired immunity and artificially acquired  immunity

2.12.                    Describe the how vaccines work

2.13.                    Describe the stages of cell-mediated immunity (T-Cells)

2.14.                    Compare and contrast the reactions of B-cells and T-cells.

2.15.                    Define the term autoimmune disease.

3.      Heart and Circulatory

3.1.   Describe what is happening to the heart during diastole and systole

3.2.   Define the term cardiac cycle (remember it is per beat)

3.3.   Describe to the stages of the cardiac action potential and refractory period.

3.3.1.      What is happening to the Ca++ channel, K+ channel & Na+ channel

3.3.2.      Describe how it slowly depolarizes

3.4.   Describe what happens when it reaches threshold

3.5.   Describe how a cardiac action potential differs from a skeletal muscle action potential.

3.6.   Describe the structure involved in the conduction system of the heart and what do they do:

3.6.1.      What does the SA node do?

3.6.2.      What does the AV node do?

3.6.3.      What does the bundle of His do?

3.6.4.      What do the Purkinje fibers do?

3.6.5.      Describe the sequence of excitation.

3.7.   Describe the stages of an ECG and describe what is happening to the heart during each deflection (Know when each of the chambers is repolarizing and depolarizing)

3.7.1.      ha5lf1917_cWhat does a P wave record?

3.7.2.      What does the QRS wave record?

3.7.3.      What does the T wave record?

3.8.   Describe what factors affect heart rate

3.9.   Describe the affect of the sympathetic system on heart rate.

3.10.                    Describe what happens to the heart and circulatory system during stress and exercise

3.11.                    Describe the affect of the parasympathetic system on heart rate? What does the vagal nerve do?

3.12.                    Describe why there is a difference in size between the left and the right ventricles

3.13.                    Define the following terms, how to they relate and what factors affect:

3.13.1.  Cardiac output

3.13.2.  Stroke volume

3.13.3.  Peripheral resistance

3.13.4.  Blood pressure

3.13.5.  Heart rate

3.13.6.  Blood viscosity

3.13.7.  Blood Pressure

I want to know things like what happens to blood pressure when resistance increases. Knowing the equations will not be enough.

3.14.                    Know what happens to cardiac output when heart rate increases

3.15.                    Describe the functions and structure of:

3.15.1.  Veins

3.15.2.  Arteries

3.15.3.  Aorta

3.15.4.  Vena Cava

3.15.5.  Artioles

3.15.6.  Venules

3.15.7.  Capillaries

3.16.                    Describe how blood flows through the heart

3.17.                    Identify the differences between the pulmonary and systemic circulations.

3.18.                    Identify what tissues are responsible for vasocontriction and vasodilation.

3.19.                    Describe how those tissues affect blood pressure.

 

4.      Respiratory

4.1.   Identify on a graph and define  the various lung volumes and the capacities-

4.1.1.      Tidal Volume

4.1.2.      Inspiratory Reserve Volume

4.1.3.      Expiratory Reserve Volume

4.1.4.      Residual Volume

4.2.   Describe what internal respiration is and what happens to carbon dioxide and oxygen

4.3.   Describe what external respiration is and what happen to carbon dioxide and oxygen.

4.4.   List the necessary stages needed to supply the body with oxygen.

4.5.   Describe the mechanism that causes the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen.            (ie active transport, facilitated diffusion, etc)

4.6.   Identify the factors that stimulate ventilation.(pH, O2, CO2, and H+)

4.7.   Describe how hyperventilation and hypoventilation affects O2, CO2, H+ and pH levels

4.8.   Describe the function of surfactant is and what happens when there is not enough.

5.      Electrolyte and Acid/Base Balance

5.1.   Describe the relationship between CO2, H+ and pH

5.2.   Understand the importance of this reaction:  CO2  + H20 H2CO3 H+  + HCO3

5.3.   Describe how ventilation affects the above equation.

5.4.   Describe what happens when you hypoventiliate and hyperventilate and apply it to the above equation

6.      Urinary System

6.1.   Describe the function of a nephron.

6.2.   Identify the parts of a nephron.

6.2.1.      Glomerulus

6.2.2.      Glomerular capsule (Bowmans capsule)

6.2.3.      Renal corpuscle

6.2.4.      Proximal Tubule

6.2.5.      Descending Limb of the Loop of Henle

6.2.6.      Ascending Limp of the Loop of Henle

6.2.7.      Collecting Duct

6.3.   List the exact sequence of these structures

6.4.   Identify what glomerular hydrostatic pressure means and what controls it

6.5.   Identify what creates the osmotic gradient at the loop of Henle. 

6.6.   Describer what is meant by the countercurrent mechanism and locate where it occur.

6.7.   List the stages of urine formation.

6.8.   Define the term Tm (transport maximum) means and what happens when a substance in the fluid is higher than its Tm.

6.9.   Identify the factors affect the glomerular filtration rate.

6.10.                    Describe how high and low blood pressure affect the glomerular filtration rate

6.11.                    Identify the location and the function of the juxtaglomerular apparatus.

6.12.                    Describe the function of the kidneys in relation to electrolyte balance and pH regulation

6.13.                    Describe the relationship between water balance and electrolytes

6.14.                    Describe how the kidneys control pH

7.      Reproductive

7.1.   Describe the similarities between oogenesis and spermatogenesis.

7.2.   Identify the differences between spermatogenesis and oogenesis.

7.3.   Describe a polar body and identify how many are produced during oogenesis.

7.4.   Describe why are the testes are outside of the body.

7.5.   Identify when and why menstruation occurs (What triggers it and when does it start).

7.6.   List the functions of LH and FSH in both the male and female systems

7.7.   Describe how hyposecretion of the anterior pituitary affect male and female reproduction

7.8.   Identify how the following glands impact the female and male reproduction and which hormones are released:

7.8.1.      Hypothalamus

7.8.2.      Anterior pituitary

7.8.3.      Testes

7.8.4.      Ovaries

8.      Development

8.1.   Identify where fertilization takes place.

8.2.   Describe what cleavage is. 

8.3.   Identify when the fertilized ovum becomes a zygote, an embryo and a fetus.

8.4.   Describe what a blastocyst and a morula are.

9.      Endocrine System

9.1.   Define the term hormone

9.2.   Describe how most hormone levels are controlled

9.3.   Identify why the receptor tissue needs to respond to a specific hormone.

9.4.   Identify what factors control insulin release.

9.5.   List the endocrine functions of the:

9.5.1.      Anterior Pituitary

9.5.2.      Adrenal Gland

9.5.3.      Thyroid

9.5.4.      Parathyroid

9.5.5.      Pancreas