APII Study Guides




1.      Blood

There will be blood slides on the test and you will be asked to identify several leukocytes. Remember knowing what the nucleus looks like is the best way to identify the leukocytes. There will also be a series of blood strips and students will need to identify the type, antigens present, the antibodies present, the type that the individual can receive and the type that they a can donate too.

1.1.   List the components of blood and what creates most of the blood volume

1.2.   Be able to identify slides of the following cells and list their functions:

1.2.1.      Erythrocyte

1.2.2.      Leukocytes            Agranular

·                       Monocytes

·                       Lymphocytes            Granular

·                       Neutrophils

·                       Basophils

·                       Eosinophils

1.2.3.      Platelets

1.3.   Identify the components of plasma

1.4.   Compare and contrast the functions of a differential WBC count and a total WBC count.

1.5.   Describe why red blood cells do not have a nucleus.  What are the   advantages of this structure and the disadvantages pertaining to life span?

1.6.   Describe what hemoglobin is, its functions, and how many molecule of O2 it can carry

1.7.   ABO TestingThere will be sheets of ABO testing make sure you can do that

1.7.1.      In blood what do an antigen and an antibody mean.

1.7.2.      Be able to identify a blood type card

1.7.3.      For each blood type A, B, AB, or O (positive or negative) identify:            What antigens are present            What antibodies are present            What blood that individual can receive            What blood type they can donate too.            What is the blood type if it coagulates with:

·                       Anti-A

·                       Anti-B

·                       Neither Anti-A or Anti-B

·                       Anti-Rh.

1.7.4.      Identify which type is the universal donor and why

1.7.5.      Identify which type is the universal receiver and why

1.7.6.      Describe what happens when an Rh- mother carries an Rh+ baby

2.      Lymphatic System

2.1.   Histology There will be slides.  Be able to identify the following structures and know their functions.

·              Lymphatic Vessel:  valve

·              Spleen:  white pulp and red pulp

·              Tonsils:  crypts  (describe the function of crypts in tonsils)

·              Thymus: cortex & medulla of lobules

·              Lymph nodes:  follicle

2.2.   Vessels

2.2.1.      Describe which direction lymph moves.

2.2.2.      Identify the components of lymph including which cells can be found in lymph

2.2.3.      On a model identify the following structures

·                  Thoracic Duct

·                  Right Lymphatic Duct

·                  Intestinal Trunk

·                  Cisterna chyli

2.3.   Follicles

2.3.1.      Describe what Peyer’s patches are and where they can be found

2.3.2.      Identify the function and location of the appendix

2.4.   Lymph Nodes

2.4.1.      On a model be able to identify the structures of a lymph node including:

·                  Capsule

·                  Cortex

·                  Medulla

·                  Afferent Lymphatic Vessels 

·                  Efferent Lymphatic Vessels

2.4.2.      Make sure you know the difference between afferent and efferent

2.4.3.      Describe what types of cells can be found in a lymph node

2.4.4.      Describe the function of a lymph node

2.4.5.      Identify the major groups of lymph nodes on a model:

·                  Cervical

·                  Axillary

·                  Inguinal

·                  Pelvic

·                  Abdominal

·                  Thoracic

·                  Supratronchlear

2.5.   Spleen

2.5.1.      Describe the function & location of the spleen

2.5.2.      Identify the vessels of the spleen: splenic artery and vein

2.6.   Describe the function & location of the thymus

2.7.   Tonsils

2.7.1.      Identify function & location of the tonsils. 

2.7.2.      Identify the location of the following tonsils

·                  Palatine tonsil

·                  Lingual tonsil

·                  Pharyngeal tonsil

3.      Digestive System

3.1.   Digestive vessels

3.1.1.      Identify the location and function of the following vessels

·                  Abdominal aorta

·                  Celiac trunk

·                  Common  hepatic arteries    

·                  Left gastric arteries

·                  Superior mesenteric artery and vein

·                  Inferior mesenteric artery and vein

·                  Hepatic portal system

·                  Inferior vena cava

3.2.   Identify the layers of the digestive tract:

3.2.1.      Serosa

4.      Alimentary Canal: a continuous tube from the mouth to the anus. 

Identify the structures, histology and function of the following organs:

4.1.   Mouth:

4.1.1.      Describe the function of chewing

4.1.2.      Define the term bolus

4.1.3.      Describe the function of the tongue

4.1.4.      Describe the function of the salivary glands and be able to identify the following glands on a model

·                            Parotid gland

·                            Submandibular gland

·                            Sublingual gland

4.1.5.      Describe the function of teeth            Identify the general structure of teeth on a model

·                            Crown

·                            Root

·                            Dentin

·                            Enamel            Identify the types of teeth on a model

·                            Central incisor

·                            Lateral incisor

·                            Premolar

·                            Molar

·                            Cuspid            Describe the characteristics of the primary and secondary sets of teeth.

4.2.   Oropharynx:  Identify the regions of the pharynx

4.3.   Esophagus:  Identify the histology of the esophagus including

·              Mucosa

·              Submucosa

·              Muscularis

4.4.   Stomach

4.4.1.      Identify the function of the stomach

4.4.2.      Identify the general structure of the stomach on a model

·                  Cardiac stomach

·                  Cardiac sphincter

·                  Fundus

·                  Rugae of mucosa

·                  Pyloric sphincter

·                  Pyloric stomach

·                  Lesser & greater curvatures

·                  Gastric artery & vein

4.4.3.      Identify the general histology of the stomach on a slide including            Gastric pits

4.5.   Small intestine

4.5.1.      Identify the regions of the small intestine in order

·                  Duodenum

·                  Jejunum

·                  Ileum

4.5.2.      Identify the structure and function hepatopancreatic ampulla

4.5.3.      Identify the general histology of the small intestine on a slide including

·                  Mucosa

·                  Submucosa

·                  Muscularis

4.6.   Large Intestine

4.6.1.      Identify the outer structure of the large intestine including

·                  Teniae coli

·                  Haustra

·                  Epilocic appendages

·                  Mesentery

4.6.2.      Identify the structures of the large intestine in order            Ileocecal valve            Cecum            Vermiform appendix            Ascending colon            Transverse colon            Descending colon            Sigmoid colon            Rectum            Anus

4.6.3.      Identify the general histology of the large intestine on a slide including            Mucosa            Submucosa            Muscularis

5.      Accessory Organs

5.1.   Liver

5.1.1.      Describe the functions of the liver particularly focus on:            The creation of bile            The cleaning blood

5.1.2.      Describe the function of bile and identify what it is made of

5.1.3.      Identify the lobes of the liver            Right lobe            Left lobe            Caudate lobe            Quadrate lobe

5.1.4.      Identify the hepatic vessels and ducts            Hepatic Artery            Hepatic Portal Vein            Common Hepatic Duct

5.1.5.      List which vessels make up a triad

5.2.   Histology            Be able to identify the following structure on a slide of the liver                  Lobules                  Central vein                  Hepatocytes

6.      Gallbladder

6.1.   List the functions of gallbladder

6.2.   Be able to identify the cystic duct

6.3.   Be able to identify the common bile duct

7.      Pancreas

7.1.   Be able to describe the function of the pancreas

7.2.   Be able to list its endocrine and exocrine functions

7.3.   Be  able to identify a pancreatic duct

7.4.   Identify the location of the hepatopancreatic sphincter and identify its functions.

7.5.   Histology

7.5.1.      Acinar cells (exocrine)

7.5.2.      Islets (endocrine)