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PRACTICAL II STUDY GUIDE

RENAL, RESPIRATORY, CARDIAC, & CIRCULATORY ANATOMY

nephron kidney

You will need to be able to identify the following structures on the models and slides.

Structures marked by *can show up on the sheep kidney & sheep heart

1.      Urinary System
1.1.   Blood vessels (Also know the direction of blood flow
1.2.   Renal Artery
1.2.1.      Renal vein
1.2.2.      Afferent arteriole
1.2.3.      Efferent arteriole
1.2.4.      Peritubular capillaries
1.2.5.      Glomerulus
1.3.   Nephron
1.3.1.      Bowmanís capsule
1.3.2.      Glomerulus
1.3.3.      Distal Tubule
1.3.4.      Proximal Tubule
1.3.5.      Loop of Henle (Nephron Loop)
1.3.6.      Collecting Duct
1.4.   Kidney
1.4.1.      Regions
1.4.1.1.            capsule
1.4.1.2.            Cortex
1.4.1.3.            Medulla
1.4.1.4.            Pelvis

1.4.2.      *Major calyxes

1.4.3.      *Minor calyxes

1.4.4.      *Renal hilus

1.4.5.      Renal Pyramids

1.4.6.      Renal Columns

1.5.   *Ureter

1.6.   Bladder

1.7.   Urethra

1.8.   Urinary Histology

1.8.1.      Kidney

1.8.1.1.            Glomerulus

1.8.1.2.            Bowmanís Capsule

1.8.1.3.            Nephron Tubule

1.8.2.      Ureters/Urethra/Bladder

1.8.2.1.            Mucosa layer

1.8.2.2.            Smooth muscle layer

1.9.   Identify the path of urine formation from the glomerulus to the ureter to the urethra.

1.10.                    Define  the difference between the ureter and the urethra

2.      Respiratory System

The anatomy you need to know includes:  (Be able to identify it & know what each structure does)

2.1.   CONDUCTING ZONE

2.1.1.      nasal cavity

2.1.2.      pharynx

2.1.2.1.            Nasopharynx

2.1.2.2.            Oropharynx

2.1.2.3.            Laryngopharynx

2.1.3.      larynx

2.1.3.1.            thyroid cartilage

2.1.3.2.            vocal cords

2.1.3.3.            epiglottis

2.1.3.4.            glottis

2.1.4.      trachea

2.1.4.1.            tracheal cartilage

2.1.5.      primary bronchi

2.2.   RESPIRATORY ZONE

2.2.1.      Alveoli

2.2.1.1.            Type 1 cells

2.2.1.2.            Air duct

2.2.2.      lung.png

2.3.   lung

2.3.1.      lobes: 

2.3.1.1.            superior lobe

2.3.1.2.            Inferior lobe

2.3.1.3.            middle lobe (right only)

2.3.2.      Fissures between the lobe

2.3.3.      Pulmonary artery     

2.3.4.      Pulmonary vein        

2.3.5.      Pulmonary hilus

2.3.6.      visceral pleura (pulmonary pleura)

2.3.7.      Cardiac notch                                               

2.4.   Respiratory Histology

2.4.1.      Lung

2.4.1.1.            Alveoli

2.4.1.2.            Type 1 cells

2.4.2.      Trachea

2.4.2.1.            Mucosa

2.4.2.2.            Submucosa

2.4.2.3.            Hyaline Cartilage

2.4.2.4.            (Compare to esophagus)

 

2.5.   Describe the difference between the systemic and the pulmonary circulation

2.6.   Define  the term  bronchial circulation is

3.      Heart

3.1.   Be able to follow the path of blood through the heart.

3.2.   Compare the structure of antrioventricular and semilunar valves.  How does each function to prevent the backflow of blood?

3.3.   Know the meaning of the terms Pulmonary circuit, Systemic circuit, and Coronary circuit

3.4.   Describe the difference in ventricular size in terms of pressure, force, and resistance.

3.5.    Know which vessels carry oxygenated or deoxygenated blood to or from the heart

3.6.   ha5lf1904e_aBe able to identify and know what each structure does

3.7.   *Right atria

3.7.1.      Tricuspid valve

3.7.2.      *Cordae tendineae

3.8.   *Left atria

3.8.1.      Mitral valve (bicuspid)

3.8.2.      *Cordae tendineae

3.9.   *Right ventricles

3.9.1.      Pulmonary semilunar valve

3.10.                    *Left ventricle

3.10.1.  Aortic semilunar valve 

3.11.                    *Septum

3.12.                    Coronary vessels

3.12.1.  Coronary sinus

3.12.2.  Anterior interventricular artery

3.12.3.  Great cardiac vein

3.12.4.  Middle cardiac vein

3.13.                    Aorta

3.14.                    Superior and inferior vena cava

3.15.                    Pulmonary arteries

3.15.1.   Pulmonary trunk

3.15.2.  Determine if the blood is oxygenated or  deoxygenated

3.16.                    Pulmonary veins

3.16.1.  Determine if the blood is oxygenated or  deoxygenated

3.17.                     Layers

3.17.1.  Pericardium layers

3.17.2.  Epicardium

3.17.3.  Endocardium

3.17.4.   Myocardium

3.18.                    Cardiac Histology

3.18.1.  Cardiac Muscle (contractile myocardium)

3.18.2.  Intercalated discs

 

4.      Circulatory System

4.1.   Describe  the difference is between an artery and a vein--in terms of direction of blood flow and structure

4.2.   The anatomy you need to know includes:  (Be able to identify it & know what area each structure serves) Remember your skeletal system and regional terms

4.2.1.      Head and neck

4.2.1.1.            Common carotid artery

4.2.1.2.            External carotid artery

4.2.1.3.            Inernal carotid artery

4.2.1.4.            External jugular vein

4.2.1.5.            Internal jugular vein

4.2.1.6.            circle of Willis

4.2.2.      Arm & Shoulder

4.2.2.1.            Subclavian artery

4.2.2.2.            Axillary artery & vein

4.2.2.3.            Brachial artery & vein

4.2.2.4.            Ulnar artery & vein

4.2.2.5.            Radial artery & vein

4.2.2.6.            Median vein

4.2.3.      Thorax

4.2.3.1.            Aortic arch

4.2.3.2.            Descending aorta

4.2.3.3.            Superior vena cava

4.2.3.4.            Inferior vena cava

4.2.3.5.            Left & tight iliac arteries & veins

4.2.4.      Leg

4.2.4.1.            Left & tight iliac arteries & veins

4.2.4.2.            Femoral artery & vein

4.2.4.3.            Popliteal artery & vein

4.2.4.4.            Great sphenous vein

4.2.4.5.            Anterior tibial artery & vein

4.2.4.6.            Posterior tibial artery & vein