APII Study Guide Home Page



nephron kidney

You will need to be able to identify the following structures on the models and slides.

Structures marked by *can show up on the sheep kidney & sheep heart

1.      Urinary System
1.1.   Blood vessels (Also know the direction of blood flow
1.2.   Renal Artery
1.2.1.      Renal vein
1.2.2.      Afferent arteriole
1.2.3.      Efferent arteriole
1.2.4.      Peritubular capillaries
1.2.5.      Glomerulus
1.3.   Nephron
1.3.1.      Bowmanís capsule
1.3.2.      Glomerulus
1.3.3.      Distal Tubule
1.3.4.      Proximal Tubule
1.3.5.      Loop of Henle (Nephron Loop)
1.3.6.      Collecting Duct
1.4.   Kidney
1.4.1.      Regions            capsule            Cortex            Medulla            Pelvis

1.4.2.      *Major calyxes

1.4.3.      *Minor calyxes

1.4.4.      *Renal hilus

1.4.5.      Renal Pyramids

1.4.6.      Renal Columns

1.5.   *Ureter

1.6.   Bladder

1.7.   Urethra

1.8.   Urinary Histology

1.8.1.      Kidney            Glomerulus            Bowmanís Capsule            Nephron Tubule

1.8.2.      Ureters/Urethra/Bladder            Mucosa layer            Smooth muscle layer

1.9.   Identify the path of urine formation from the glomerulus to the ureter to the urethra.

1.10.                    Define  the difference between the ureter and the urethra

2.      Respiratory System

The anatomy you need to know includes:  (Be able to identify it & know what each structure does)


2.1.1.      nasal cavity

2.1.2.      pharynx            Nasopharynx            Oropharynx            Laryngopharynx

2.1.3.      larynx            thyroid cartilage            vocal cords            epiglottis            glottis

2.1.4.      trachea            tracheal cartilage

2.1.5.      primary bronchi


2.2.1.      Alveoli            Type 1 cells            Air duct

2.2.2.      lung.png

2.3.   lung

2.3.1.      lobes:            superior lobe            Inferior lobe            middle lobe (right only)

2.3.2.      Fissures between the lobe

2.3.3.      Pulmonary artery     

2.3.4.      Pulmonary vein        

2.3.5.      Pulmonary hilus

2.3.6.      visceral pleura (pulmonary pleura)

2.3.7.      Cardiac notch                                               

2.4.   Respiratory Histology

2.4.1.      Lung            Alveoli            Type 1 cells

2.4.2.      Trachea            Mucosa            Submucosa            Hyaline Cartilage            (Compare to esophagus)


2.5.   Describe the difference between the systemic and the pulmonary circulation

2.6.   Define  the term  bronchial circulation is

3.      Heart

3.1.   Be able to follow the path of blood through the heart.

3.2.   Compare the structure of antrioventricular and semilunar valves.  How does each function to prevent the backflow of blood?

3.3.   Know the meaning of the terms Pulmonary circuit, Systemic circuit, and Coronary circuit

3.4.   Describe the difference in ventricular size in terms of pressure, force, and resistance.

3.5.    Know which vessels carry oxygenated or deoxygenated blood to or from the heart

3.6.   ha5lf1904e_aBe able to identify and know what each structure does

3.7.   *Right atria

3.7.1.      Tricuspid valve

3.7.2.      *Cordae tendineae

3.8.   *Left atria

3.8.1.      Mitral valve (bicuspid)

3.8.2.      *Cordae tendineae

3.9.   *Right ventricles

3.9.1.      Pulmonary semilunar valve

3.10.                    *Left ventricle

3.10.1.  Aortic semilunar valve 

3.11.                    *Septum

3.12.                    Coronary vessels

3.12.1.  Coronary sinus

3.12.2.  Anterior interventricular artery

3.12.3.  Great cardiac vein

3.12.4.  Middle cardiac vein

3.13.                    Aorta

3.14.                    Superior and inferior vena cava

3.15.                    Pulmonary arteries

3.15.1.   Pulmonary trunk

3.15.2.  Determine if the blood is oxygenated or  deoxygenated

3.16.                    Pulmonary veins

3.16.1.  Determine if the blood is oxygenated or  deoxygenated

3.17.                     Layers

3.17.1.  Pericardium layers

3.17.2.  Epicardium

3.17.3.  Endocardium

3.17.4.   Myocardium

3.18.                    Cardiac Histology

3.18.1.  Cardiac Muscle (contractile myocardium)

3.18.2.  Intercalated discs


4.      Circulatory System

4.1.   Describe  the difference is between an artery and a vein--in terms of direction of blood flow and structure

4.2.   The anatomy you need to know includes:  (Be able to identify it & know what area each structure serves) Remember your skeletal system and regional terms

4.2.1.      Head and neck            Common carotid artery            External carotid artery            Inernal carotid artery            External jugular vein            Internal jugular vein            circle of Willis

4.2.2.      Arm & Shoulder            Subclavian artery            Axillary artery & vein            Brachial artery & vein            Ulnar artery & vein            Radial artery & vein            Median vein

4.2.3.      Thorax            Aortic arch            Descending aorta            Superior vena cava            Inferior vena cava            Left & tight iliac arteries & veins

4.2.4.      Leg            Left & tight iliac arteries & veins            Femoral artery & vein            Popliteal artery & vein            Great sphenous vein            Anterior tibial artery & vein            Posterior tibial artery & vein