APII Study Guide Home Page



Be able to identify and list the functions of the following glands, organs & structures.  Be able to identify the histology slides that are listed.

Look at the models and the slides before the practical

1.      Endocrine System

1.1.   Be able to identify and locate the major glands of the endocrine system

1.1.1.      Hypothalamus---Identify what does it control

1.1.2.      Pituitary  (hypophysis)            Anterior pituitary (andenohypophysis)            Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)

1.1.3.      Thyroid

1.1.4.      Parathyroid

1.1.5.      Pancreas

1.1.6.      Adrenal gland            Adrenal capsule            Adrenal cortex                  Zona glomerulosa                  Zona fasciculate                  Zona reticularis            Adrenal medulla

1.1.7.      Gonads

1.2.   Identify the hormones released by:

1.2.1.      Posterior pituitary

1.2.2.      Thyroid

1.2.3.      Adrenal gland

1.2.4.      Pancreas            Identify the functions of the alpha and beta cells            Compare and contrast the endocrine and exocrine functions of the pancreas

1.3.   Be able to recognize the following major histological (tissue) structures when given a microscopic specimen.

1.3.1.      Pituitary gland (hypophesis)            Anterior pituitary—Secretory cells            Posterior pituitary-- pituicytes            Distinguish between the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) and anterior pituitary (andenohypophysis)

1.3.2.      Thyroid gland            Follicles            colloid            Parafollicular cells

1.3.3.      Parathyroid            Be able to distinguish between the thyroid from the parathyroid

1.3.4.      Adrenal gland            Capsule            Cortex            Medulla

1.3.5.      Pancreas            Pancreatic islets            Acnir cells

2.      Male Reproduction

2.1.   Identify the location of spermatogenesis

2.2.   List the organelles found in the mature sperm

2.3.   Calculate the number of chromosomes found in mature sperm.

2.4.   Follow the pathway of the mature sperm

2.5.   Describe the relationship between the location of the testes and health of the sperm.

2.6.   Describe why the testes are located outside of the body core.

2.7.   Describe the function and the location of the major structures of the male anatomy

2.7.1.      Testes            scrotum            epididymis            seminiferous tubules

2.7.2.      Vas deferns (Ductus Deferens)

2.7.3.      Prostate

2.7.4.      Seminal Vesicles

2.7.5.      Urethra            prostatic             membranous             spongy

2.7.6.      Penis            shaft            glans penis            corpus spongiosum            corpus cavernosa

2.7.7.      Sperm            head             tail            midpiece            acrosome

2.8.   Describe why the prostate gland secretes alkaline fluid

2.9.   Be able to recognize the following major histological (tissue) structures when given a microscopic specimen.

2.9.1.      Testes            seminiferous tubules            sperm

2.9.2.      Penis

2.9.3.      Epididymis


3.      Female Reproduction

3.1.   Describe what happens during oogenesis

3.2.   Describe what a polar body is.

3.3.   Describe the order of follicle maturation

3.4.   Describe how the corpus luteum develops

3.5.   Describe the function and the location of the major structures of the female anatomy

3.5.1.      Ovary            Primary oocyte            Secondary oocyte            Primordial follicle            Developing follicle            Mature or Graafian follicle            Corpus luteum

3.5.2.      Uterine tube            Fimbriae            Ampulla

3.5.3.      Uterus            Fundus            Broad ligament            Round ligament

3.5.4.      Cervix

3.5.5.      Vagina

3.5.6.      Urethra

3.5.7.      Vulva            Clitoris            Mons Pubis            Perineum            Labia major & minor

3.5.8.      Mammary glands            Nipple            Lactiferous glands            Lactiferous sinus/ampulla

3.6.   Be able to recognize the following major histological (tissue) structures when given a microscopic specimen.

3.6.1.      Uterine wall            Endometrium (presence of blood vessels)            Myometrium            Perimetrium

3.6.2.      Uterine Tube            Mucosa layer            Smooth muscle layer

3.6.3.      Ovary            Primordial Follicle            Developing Follicle            Graafian (mature) Follicle            Oocyte            Granulosa Cells            Follicular Cell

4.      Development

4.1.   Contrast polar bodies and oocytes in relation to chromosome number and cytokinesis.

4.2.   Describe the difference between mitosis and meiosis and identify in which structures each occurs.

4.3.   Identify when a primary oocyte becomes a secondary oocyte and when it becomes an ovum.

4.4.   Determine the chromosome number of a secondary oocyte and an ovum

4.5.   Describe the stages of fertilization

4.6.   Identify the structure where fertilization take place

4.7.   Compare and contrast ovum, zygote, embryo, and fetus

4.8.   Describe the formation and function of the placenta (What part of the blastocyst forms the placenta)

4.9.   Compare and contrast the function of the corpus luteum and the placenta

4.10.                    Describe the function of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone

4.11.                    Describe the function of the corpus luteum in relation to implantation

4.12.                    Identify the arterial bypasses in the fetal circulation

4.13.                    List the functions of the embryonic membranes        Chorion and Chorionic villi        Yolk sac        Amnion        Embryonic disc

4.14.                    Identify the major structures:        Secondary oocytes              Zona pellucid              Corpus radiate              Polar body        Cleavage (mitosis---division without growth)

4.14.2.              Morula

4.14.3.              Blastocyst                    Inner cell mass (what does it become)                    Trophoblast (what does it become)