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PRACTICAL I STUDY GUIDE

ENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEMS  

Be able to identify and list the functions of the following glands, organs & structures.  Be able to identify the histology slides that are listed.

Look at the models and the slides before the practical

1.      Endocrine System

1.1.   Be able to identify and locate the major glands of the endocrine system

1.1.1.      Hypothalamus---Identify what does it control

1.1.2.      Pituitary  (hypophysis)

1.1.2.1.            Anterior pituitary (andenohypophysis)

1.1.2.2.            Posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis)

1.1.3.      Thyroid

1.1.4.      Parathyroid

1.1.5.      Pancreas

1.1.6.      Adrenal gland

1.1.6.1.            Adrenal capsule

1.1.6.2.            Adrenal cortex

1.1.6.2.1.                  Zona glomerulosa

1.1.6.2.2.                  Zona fasciculate

1.1.6.2.3.                  Zona reticularis

1.1.6.3.            Adrenal medulla

1.1.7.      Gonads

1.2.   Identify the hormones released by:

1.2.1.      Posterior pituitary

1.2.2.      Thyroid

1.2.3.      Adrenal gland

1.2.4.      Pancreas

1.2.4.1.            Identify the functions of the alpha and beta cells

1.2.4.2.            Compare and contrast the endocrine and exocrine functions of the pancreas

1.3.   Be able to recognize the following major histological (tissue) structures when given a microscopic specimen.

1.3.1.      Pituitary gland (hypophesis)

1.3.1.1.            Anterior pituitary—Secretory cells

1.3.1.2.            Posterior pituitary-- pituicytes

1.3.1.3.            Distinguish between the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) and anterior pituitary (andenohypophysis)

1.3.2.      Thyroid gland

1.3.2.1.            Follicles

1.3.2.2.            colloid

1.3.2.3.            Parafollicular cells

1.3.3.      Parathyroid

1.3.3.1.            Be able to distinguish between the thyroid from the parathyroid

1.3.4.      Adrenal gland

1.3.4.1.            Capsule

1.3.4.2.            Cortex

1.3.4.3.            Medulla

1.3.5.      Pancreas

1.3.5.1.            Pancreatic islets

1.3.5.2.            Acnir cells

2.      Male Reproduction

2.1.   Identify the location of spermatogenesis

2.2.   List the organelles found in the mature sperm

2.3.   Calculate the number of chromosomes found in mature sperm.

2.4.   Follow the pathway of the mature sperm

2.5.   Describe the relationship between the location of the testes and health of the sperm.

2.6.   Describe why the testes are located outside of the body core.

2.7.   Describe the function and the location of the major structures of the male anatomy

2.7.1.      Testes

2.7.1.1.            scrotum

2.7.1.2.            epididymis

2.7.1.3.            seminiferous tubules

2.7.2.      Vas deferns (Ductus Deferens)

2.7.3.      Prostate

2.7.4.      Seminal Vesicles

2.7.5.      Urethra

2.7.5.1.            prostatic

2.7.5.2.             membranous

2.7.5.3.             spongy

2.7.6.      Penis

2.7.6.1.            shaft

2.7.6.2.            glans penis

2.7.6.3.            corpus spongiosum

2.7.6.4.            corpus cavernosa

2.7.7.      Sperm

2.7.7.1.            head

2.7.7.2.             tail

2.7.7.3.            midpiece

2.7.7.4.            acrosome

2.8.   Describe why the prostate gland secretes alkaline fluid

2.9.   Be able to recognize the following major histological (tissue) structures when given a microscopic specimen.

2.9.1.      Testes

2.9.1.1.            seminiferous tubules

2.9.1.2.            sperm

2.9.2.      Penis

2.9.3.      Epididymis

 

3.      Female Reproduction

3.1.   Describe what happens during oogenesis

3.2.   Describe what a polar body is.

3.3.   Describe the order of follicle maturation

3.4.   Describe how the corpus luteum develops

3.5.   Describe the function and the location of the major structures of the female anatomy

3.5.1.      Ovary

3.5.1.1.            Primary oocyte

3.5.1.2.            Secondary oocyte

3.5.1.3.            Primordial follicle

3.5.1.4.            Developing follicle

3.5.1.5.            Mature or Graafian follicle

3.5.1.6.            Corpus luteum

3.5.2.      Uterine tube

3.5.2.1.            Fimbriae

3.5.2.2.            Ampulla

3.5.3.      Uterus

3.5.3.1.            Fundus

3.5.3.2.            Broad ligament

3.5.3.3.            Round ligament

3.5.4.      Cervix

3.5.5.      Vagina

3.5.6.      Urethra

3.5.7.      Vulva

3.5.7.1.            Clitoris

3.5.7.2.            Mons Pubis

3.5.7.3.            Perineum

3.5.7.4.            Labia major & minor

3.5.8.      Mammary glands

3.5.8.1.            Nipple

3.5.8.2.            Lactiferous glands

3.5.8.3.            Lactiferous sinus/ampulla

3.6.   Be able to recognize the following major histological (tissue) structures when given a microscopic specimen.

3.6.1.      Uterine wall

3.6.1.1.            Endometrium (presence of blood vessels)

3.6.1.2.            Myometrium

3.6.1.3.            Perimetrium

3.6.2.      Uterine Tube

3.6.2.1.            Mucosa layer

3.6.2.2.            Smooth muscle layer

3.6.3.      Ovary

3.6.3.1.            Primordial Follicle

3.6.3.2.            Developing Follicle

3.6.3.3.            Graafian (mature) Follicle

3.6.3.4.            Oocyte

3.6.3.5.            Granulosa Cells

3.6.3.6.            Follicular Cell

4.      Development

4.1.   Contrast polar bodies and oocytes in relation to chromosome number and cytokinesis.

4.2.   Describe the difference between mitosis and meiosis and identify in which structures each occurs.

4.3.   Identify when a primary oocyte becomes a secondary oocyte and when it becomes an ovum.

4.4.   Determine the chromosome number of a secondary oocyte and an ovum

4.5.   Describe the stages of fertilization

4.6.   Identify the structure where fertilization take place

4.7.   Compare and contrast ovum, zygote, embryo, and fetus

4.8.   Describe the formation and function of the placenta (What part of the blastocyst forms the placenta)

4.9.   Compare and contrast the function of the corpus luteum and the placenta

4.10.                    Describe the function of human chorionic gonadotropin hormone

4.11.                    Describe the function of the corpus luteum in relation to implantation

4.12.                    Identify the arterial bypasses in the fetal circulation

4.13.                    List the functions of the embryonic membranes

4.13.1.1.        Chorion and Chorionic villi

4.13.1.2.        Yolk sac

4.13.1.3.        Amnion

4.13.1.4.        Embryonic disc

4.14.                    Identify the major structures:

4.14.1.1.        Secondary oocytes

4.14.1.1.1.              Zona pellucid

4.14.1.1.2.              Corpus radiate

4.14.1.1.3.              Polar body

4.14.1.2.        Cleavage (mitosis---division without growth)

4.14.2.              Morula

4.14.3.              Blastocyst

4.14.3.1.                    Inner cell mass (what does it become)

4.14.3.2.                    Trophoblast (what does it become)