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Circulatory Study Guide

Circulation of the Appendicular System Study Guide

Circulation of the Head


Circulatory Anatomy Lab Assignment


Circulatory System: Anatomy

Vessel: general term for either arteries or veins

99,758 km of blood vessels circle earth 2.5x

I). Description

Arteries  arrow Arteriole  arrow Capillaries arrow Venules  arrow Veins

  • Arteries carry blood away from the heart

  • Veins carry blood to the heart

A).  Arteries

1). Elastic (Conducting) Arteries (2.5 cm to 1.0 cm)

 aorta and the major branches.

2). Muscular (Distributing) Arteries (1cm to 3mm)

3). Arterioles (.33mm to 10 u m)

B). Capillaries (1/30th the size of a human hair)

Contractile cells that wrap about precapillary arterioles to control capillary blood flow


C). Veins

characteristics of veins:

  •  blood pressure low
  • venous valves that prevent backflow

venules (100 micrometers)

II.  Vessel structure

A). tunica interna:

endothelium: continuation of the endocardium

B). tunica media

smooth muscle and elastin.

C). tunica externa

collagen fibers

D). vasa vasorum:

small blood vessels serving the large vessels

Vesssel Structure
Vessel Histology Vessel Histolgoy


http://w3.ouhsc.edu/histology/Text Sections/Cardiovascular.html



  • lumen

  • tunica interna

  • tunica media

  • tunica externa or adventitia

vessel structure

III.  Beginning of the Systemic Circulation as The Blood Leaves the Heart

Blood leaves the heart through the

Ascending Aorta and bends into the  aortic arch divides into

(right to left)

    A.  brachiocephalic artery

      1. right common carotid artery

      2. right subclavian artery

B. left common carotid artery

C. left subclavian artery

D. descending aorta

 IV.  Vessels of the Head

A. Arteries

i.  left & right common carotid arrow

divides into left & right

ii.  external carotid

iii. internal carotid


Vessels of the Head

iv. Circle of Willis:

Combines the anterior and posterior blood supplies and equalizes pressure



B. Veins

right & left

i.   external jugular veins

ii.  internal jugular veins


iii. right & left common jugular vein


iv. right & left brachiocephalic vein


v. superior vena cava

Vessels of the head

V. Vertebral Vessels

Vertebral artery  branches off of the subclavian artery

Vertebral vein drains into to subclavian vein


Vessels of the Head
VI. Arm Vessels

A. Arteries

i.  left and right subclavian arteries arrow

ii. axillary artery arrow

iii. brachial artery arrow

main branch of the brachial artery

iv.  deep brachial

reforms to the brachial artery arrow

v.  ulnar artery   &

vi. radial artery  which come together to form the arrow

vii. palmer artery

Arteries of the Arm
B. Veins

    Of the forearm (lateral to medial)  (thumb to little finger)

i.  cephalic vein

ii.  radial vein

iii. medial vein

iv. ulnar vein

v.  basilic vein


Veins of the arm

Upper Arm Pathways

1. Cephalic vein

Cephalic vein divides into the arrow

median cubital at the inner elbow.

Main cephalic joins the  arrow subclavian vein

median cubital joins thearrow basilic vein

2. Radial & ulnar veins

Traveling deep  radial vein  along the radius  & the ulnar vein along the ulna merge into the arrow

brachial vein  which  merges  with the arrow

basilic vein to form the arrow

axillary vein.

Veins of the arm
3. Median & basilic vein

median vein in the center  joins arrow

basilic vein which joins with the arrow

brachial vein to form thearrow

 axillary vein




Veins of the arm

Upper Arm

axillary vein arrow cephalic vein  arrow subclavian vein   arrowsuperior vena cava

VII). Thorax & Abdomen

A). Arteries

Descending Aorta

i.  thoracic aorta

ii.  abdominal aorta

iv. celiac trunk the serves the organs

v.  left & right iliac arteries


thoracix and abdomin arteries
B).  Veins

 i.  right & left common iliac veins   arrow

ii.  inferior vena cava


abdomin and thoracic viens
VIII).  Legs & Pelvis Vessels

A). Arteries

i.  common iliac artery divides into arrow

ii.  internal iliac artery

iii. external iliac artery arrow


iv.  femoral artery 

v.  deep femoral artery  

vi.  lateral femoral artery

 femoral artery  arrow

 vii.  the popliteal artery arrow

viii.  anterior tibial artery

ix. posterior tibial artery

 to become the plantar artery

x.  posterior fibular artery


Arteries of the leg
B). Veins

1. Anterior Lower Leg

i. anterior fibular vein 

ii. anterior tibial vein

iii. great saphenous vein  medially  big toe up to the pubic region

2. Posterior Lower Leg

iv. small sphenous vein

v. posterior tibial vein 

vi. posterior fibular vein


posterior fibular vein & posterior tibial vein merge under the anterior tibial vein

forming the

vii.  popliteal vein

3. Upper Leg

small saphenous vein and popliteal vein merge  arrow

    viii.  femoral vein  

great sphenous vein runs medially from the toes

femoral vein & great sphenous vein merge  arrow

external iliac vein

4.  Pelvis

ix.  internal iliac vein &  

x. external iliac vein  form the arrow

xicommon iliac vein

 which drains into the inferior vena cava