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Urinary Anatomy Study Guide


Urinary Lab Assignment

Urinary System:

Anatomy & Histology



I). Gross Anatomy of the Urinary System

A). Kidneys

B). Ureters

C). Urinary Bladder

D). Urethra

E). Renal vessels

1). Renal Artery

2). Renal Vein

Gross Anatomy of the Urinary System
II). Gross Anatomy of the Kidney (external)

A). Shape

Lateral Surface: Convex

Medial surface: Concave

B). Renal Hilus


Kidney Section

C). External Supportive Tissue

1). Renal Capsule

2). Adipose Capsule

3). Renal Fascia


Transverse section of the kidneys
A). Renal Cortex:

B). Renal Medulla

Renal Pyramids.

 Renal Columns


kidney structure
C). Renal Pelvis

Renal papilla lead from collecting ducts to minor calyces merge into several extensions called major calyces form a flat funnel  shaped tube that is continuous to the ureter.

Calyces are contained in the pelvis


internal kidney


IV). Renal  Vessels

Arteries leave the heart

Veins return to the heart

Kidney has 2 sets of capillaries

A).  Arteries

Blood leaves the heart  through the aorta.

The renal artery brings blood to the kidney

Branch into sub-arteries

 into the afferent arterioles which provide capillary networks into the nephron


Section of the kidney

Afferent means arrive ---Efferent means exit


B).  In the nephron

i. Afferent arteriole enters

ii. Glomerular capillaries found in the renal corpuscle  of the nephron

iii. Efferent arterioles leave the glomerulus

iv. Peritubular capillaries and the vasa rectus which surrounds the loop.

Pressure difference caused by differences in diameter between the afferent and the efferent artery pushes fluid into the nephron

C). Renal Veins

Blood leaves the capillary networks flows into interlobular veins.

Fuses into bigger veins that are returning to the heart

Into the renal vein leaving the kidney.

Which joins the inferior vena cava.


2 Nephrons

V). Nephrons

A). Structure

1). Renal Corpuscle:

a). Glomerulus

b). Glomerular (Bowmanís) Capsule:


Renal Corpuscle
2). Renal Tubule

i). Proximal Convoluted Tubule

ii). Loop of Henle

  • descending limb
  • ascending limb

iii). Distal Convoluted Tubule

iv). Collecting Duct

(Not part of the Nephron)

receives urine from many nephrons and leads to the renal papilla and calyces



B).  Juxtaglomerular Apparatus

afferent arteriole

 (going into the glomerular capsule)

 lies against the

distal convoluted tubule.

(tubule furthest from the glomerular capsule)


 Measures the solute concentration of the urine



kidney histology kidney histology


kidney histology

Kidney Histolgoy


http://w3.ouhsc.edu/histology/Text Sections/Urinary.html

C).  Histology


  • glomerulus

  • Bowmanís capsule

  • tubules






VI) Ureters

Paired tubes that drain the calyxes and leave the kidneys at the hilus and enter the superior portion of the bladder


VII). Gross Anatomy of the Bladder

A). Trigone

B). Layers of the Bladder Wall (Histology)

i).  Mucosa or mucous coat (transitional epithelial tissue)

ii).  Submucosa Layer (connective tissue)

iii). Smooth Muscle or Detrusor muscle

iv).  Fibrous Adventitia

  (connective tissue )


Gross Antomy of THe Bladder
  • lumen

  • mucosa layer

  • submucosa layer

  • smooth muscle layer



bladder histology



V). Gross Anatomy of The Urethra

Thin walled tube that leads from the bladder

Length varies between the sexes.

In males it passes through the prostate

A.  Sphincters

1). Internal Urethral Sphincter

2). External Urethral Sphincter

B.  Histology

The internal space is the lumen,

which is surrounded by the mucous coat (transitional epithelium), the submucosa, and the smooth muscle

ureter histology

Ureter Histology



Label (either a ureter or urethra slide)
  • lumen

  • mucosa layer

  • submucosa layer

  • smooth muscle layer