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Endocrine System Study Guide

Gland

Hypothalamus

Hormone

Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone

Prolactin Releasing Hormone

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone

Corticotropin Releasing Hormone

Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone

Somatostatin Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone

Protein/ Steroid

Protein

Protein

Protein

Protein

Protein

Protein

Protein

Stimulated by

Low Estrogen

High Estrogen

Level of gonadal hormones High stress & low gluco- corticoids Low thyroid stimulating hormone level High, level of growth hormone in blood  Low level of growth hormone in blood

Inhibited

by

Level of gonadal hormones High gluco- corticoids High thyroid stimulating hormone
Target

Anterior Pituitary

Effects on target

Inhibits Prolactin

Release of Prolactin

Release of Gonadotropins FSH & LH Release of Adreno- corticotropic Hormone Release of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

Inhibits Growth Hormone & Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

Release

Growth Hormone

Too Much Hormone

Too little prolactin

Too much prolactin

Too much FSH & LH Too much ACTH Too much TSH

Too little growth hormone & TSH

Too much growth hormone

Too Little Hormone

Too much prolactin

Too little prolactin

Too Little FSH & LH

Too little ACTH Too little TSH

Too much growth hormone & TSH

Too little growth hormone


 

 

 

Gland

Anterior Pituitary

Hormone Melanocyte- Stimulating Hormone Prolactin

Luteinizing Hormone Gonado- tropin

Follicle- Stimulating Hormone Gonadotropin

Adrenno- corticotropic Hormone

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

Human Growth Hormone

Protein/ Steroid

protein protein protein protein protein protein protein

Stimu- lated by

Cortico- tropin Releasing Hormone

Prolactin- Releasing Hormone

Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Corticotropin- Releasing Hormone

Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone

 

Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (insulin-like growth factor)

Inhibited

by

Dopamine release from the Hypo- thalamus Prolactin- Inhibiting Hormone Gonadal hormone feedback Gonadal hormone feedback High gluco- corticoids

Somatostatin (feedback of high thyroxine)

Somatostatin
Target

Skin

(Neuro- transmitter)

Mammary Glands

Testes & Ovaries

Testes & Ovaries

Adrenal Cortex

Thyroid Gland

Muscle Bones

Effects on target

Darkening of the skin

Milk production

Release of gonadal hormones

Develop sperm & eggs

Release of gluco- corticoids

Stimulates release of thyroid hormone

Increase cell division, protein synthesis

Too Much Hormone

Too much pigment

Improper milk production

Too much gluco- corticoids

Too much thyroid hormone

Gigantism

Acromegaly

Too Little Hormone

Low pigment levels

Insufficient milk productions

infertility

Too little gluco- corticoids

Too little thyroid hormone

Progeria

Pituitary Dwarfism


Gland

Posterior Pituitary

Hypothalamus

Hormone

Antidiuretic

Hormone

Oxytocin

Antidiuretic

Hormone

Oxytocin

Protein/ Steroid

Protein

Protein

Protein

Protein

Stimulated by

ADH

from the hypo-thalamus

Oxytocin from the hypo-thalamus

High solute levels in the blood

Positive feedback of Oxytocin

& Gonadal Hormones

Inhibited by

Low solute levels in the blood

Gonadal Hormones

Low solute levels in the blood

Gonadal Hormones

Target

Kidney Tubules

Uterus Mammary Glands

Posterior Pituitary

Effects on target

Reabsorption of water

Uterine contractions

Milk letdown

Storage & release of ADH

Storage & release of oxytocin

Too Much Hormone

High blood pressure

Early labor

High blood pressure

Early labor

 

Too Little Hormone

Excessive urination

No labor

Excessive urination

No labor

 


Gland

Adrenal Medulla

Adrenal Cortex

Parathyroid

Thyroid
Hormone

Epinephrine

Norepine- phrine

Gonado- corticoids

Androgens

Gluco- corticoids

Cortisol

Mineralo- corticoids

Aldosterone

Parathyroid Hormone

Calcitonin

Thyroid Hormone Thyroxine &   Triiodo- thyronine

Protein/ Steroid

Protein

Steroid

Steroid

Steroid

Protein

Protein

Protein

Stimulated by

Sym-    pathetic Nervous System

ACTH

ACTH

& blood volume

ACTH

& low blood volume

Low blood & calcium levels

Low blood calcium levels

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

Inhibited by

Parasym- patheitc Nervous System

Low ACTH

High levels of cortisol

High blood volume

High blood &

calcium levels

High blood calcium levels

Feedback of thyroxine levels

Target

Heart & peripheral vascular system  (& other)

Various tissues

Various tissues

Kidney tubules

Skeleton, Kidneys, Intestine

skeletal system

Most organs
Effects on target

Metabolism, heart rate, & blood pressure

Onset of puberty & axillary hair

increase

gluconeo- genesis

Reabsorb Na+

(& water)

Osteoclast activity,

Ca++  reabsorption

increases osteoclast activity

glucose oxidation and temperature

Too Much Hormone

Rapid heart rate, hyper- glycemia

Masculinization in females; early puberty males

Cushings disease, hyper- glycemia

High blood pressure and loss of K+

Hyper- parathyroidism softening of the bones

Hyper- thyroidism

Too Little Hormone

Addisons disease, hypotension

Addisons disease

Hypo- parathyroidism muscle twitches & death

Goiter Cretinism

 


 

Gland

Thymus

Pineal Gland

Testes

Ovaries

Pancreas

Hormone

Thymo- poietins

Thymosins

Melatonin

Testosterone

Progesterone

Estrogen

Insulin

Glucagon

Protein/ Steroid

Protein

Protein

Steroid

Steroid

Steroid

Protein

Protein

Stimulated by

Low

lympho- cytes

Daytime

Gonado- tropins

FSH & LH

levels

FSH & LH

levels

High glucose levels

Low glucose levels

Inhibited by

High lympho- cytes

Night-time

Gonado- tropins

FSH & LH

levels

FSH & LH levels

Low glucose levels

High glucose levels

Target

Red bone marrow

Hypo- thalamus

Various tissues & reproductive organs

Uterus

Ovaries

Cell membranes, muscle, & fat

Liver

Effects on Target

Production of T cells

Rhythmic variations

Secondary sex characteristics & sperm production

Changes in the uterine mucosa

Egg production

Stimulates membrane transport of glucose

Breakdown glycogen into glucose

 

Too Much Hormone

Hypo- glycemia

Hyper- glycemia

Too Little Hormone

 

Infertility

Infertility

Diabetes mellitus

Hypoglycemia

(Low blood sugar)



 

Gland Adipose Tissue

Skin

Kidney

Placenta

Gastro- intestinal

Heart

Hormone

Leptin

Chlolecalciferol

(Vitamin D)

Erythro- poietin

Estrogen Pro- gesterone Human Chronic  Gonado- tropion

Digestive hormones

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide

Protein/ Steroid

Protein

Steroid Protein Steroid Protein Protein

Stimulated by

Glucose Uptake Pregnancy

Inhibited by

Target Central nervous system

Liver,  kidney, & small intestine

Red bone marrow
  • Uterus

  • mammary glands

  • Other tissues

Digestive system

Kidneys, & adrenal cortex

Effects on target

Produces sensation of satiety

Vitamin D to absorb Ca++ from the diet

Production of red blood cells

Maintain pregnancy

Breakdown of foodstuff

Blood pressure & Na+ concentration

Too Much Hormone

Too Little Hormone

Anemia

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