API Study Guide Home Page




1.      Movement

1.1. Identify what angular movements are.

1.2.Be able to identify examples of the following movements.

1.2.1.      Flexion

1.2.2.      Extension

1.2.3.      Hyperextension

1.2.4.      Dorsiflexion

1.2.5.      Plantar Flexion

1.2.6.      Abduction

1.2.7.      Adduction

1.2.8.      Circumduction

1.2.9.      Rotation

1.2.10.  Supination

1.2.11.  Pronation

1.2.12.  Inversion

1.2.13.  Eversion

1.2.14.  Protraction

1.2.15.  Retraction

1.2.16.  Elevation

1.2.17.  Depression

2.      Joints

2.1. Describe the functions of joints

2.2. Describe how joints are classified.

2.3.Identify  the following joints:

2.3.1.      suture joint

2.3.2.      gomphosis

2.3.3.      cartilaginous

2.3.4.      synovial

2.4. Identify a synovial joint is and its parts.

2.5. Describe what these structures are and their role in joint function:

2.5.1.      tendons

2.5.2.      ligaments

2.5.3.      bursae

2.5.4.      tendon sheaths

2.5.5.      menisci

2.5.6.      articular cartilage

2.6. Describe the function of synovial fluid is

2.7. Identify  the types and examples of synovial joints

2.7.1.      Plane joints

2.7.2.      Hinge Joints

2.7.3.      Pivot Joints

2.7.4.      Condyloid Joints

2.7.5.      Saddle Joint

2.7.6.      Ball and Socket Joints

2.8. Describe the factors influence joint stability

3.      Muscles

3.1. Describe the structure and the break down of a muscle

3.1.1.      Fascicle

3.1.2.      Muscle fiber

3.1.3.      Perimysium

3.2. Identify the terms are for muscle plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum







3.3.Identify  the various bands represent.  (Students have had a problem with this)

3.3.1.      H zone,

3.3.2.      M line

3.3.3.      Z disc

3.3.4.      A band

3.3.5.      I band

3.4. Identify the structures that cause the striations in skeletal muscle

3.5. Identify the structure of a muscle fiber and what a sarcomere is

3.6.Identify myofibrils

3.7. Describe what myosin and actin are and how  they interact.

(Which is the thin filament and which is the thick filament)

3.8. Describe the functions of Na+, K+ and Ca++  in muscle contraction

3.9. Identify all of the stages of an action potential and which side of the membrane is negative and positive and why. 


3.9.1.      Depolarization

3.9.2.      Repolarization

3.9.3.      Refractory period


3.10.        Describe what is happening to the membrane potential during an action potential.

3.11.        Describe what is happening to the Na+ gate.

3.12.        Describe what is happening to the K+ gate.

3.13.        Describe what ions are moving across the membrane during depolarization and repolarization.

3.14.        Identify when ions move by diffusion and active transport.

3.15.        Describe what stimulates a muscle fiber

3.16.        Identify a neurotransmitter and what it does.

3.17.        Identify what threshold stimulus means for an action potential

3.18.        Describe what a motor unit is

3.19.        Describe what all of the functions of ATP are in muscle contraction polarization, repolarization actin/myosin movement etc.

3.20.        Describe what is meant by (and what causes):

3.20.1.  all of none

3.20.2.  muscle tone

3.20.3.  tetanus

3.20.4.  propagation

3.21.        Describe the relationship between body heat and muscle contractions.

3.22.        Describe what is happening in this diagram.

muscle contraction diagram

3.23.        Describe how the sliding filament model of contraction works.

(ie.  actin and myosin slide past each other)

3.23.1.  Describe a cross bridge.

3.23.2.  Describe what blocks cross bridge formation.

3.23.3.  Describe what unblocks cross bridge formation

3.23.4.  Describe the relationship of calcium to cross  bridge formation

3.23.5.  Where does the calcium come from and where does it go.

4.      Metabolism

4.1.Describe general metabolism.

4.1.1.      Products of glycolysis

4.1.2.       Krebís cycle

4.1.3.      The electron transfer chain

4.1.4.      fermentation

4.2.Describe the general function of cellular respiration

4.3. Describe the terms anaerobic and aerobic and which processes are anaerobic and aerobic

4.4. Describe what causes oxygen debt. (What systems are involved to supply oxygen)

4.5. Describe the effects of lactic acid are

5.      Muscle Contractions

5.1.Describe the stages of a muscle contraction are (and what causes each stage: crossbridge formation, calcium level etc)

5.1.1.      Latent period

5.1.2.      Contraction Period

5.1.3.      Relaxation Period

5.2. Describe the differences between isometric and isotonic contractions

5.3. Describe what affects muscle strength

5.4. Describe what is meant by the optimal length of a sarcomere?  What happens if there is too much overlap or no overlap of myofibrils.