AP I Study Guide Home Page




1.      Cells

1.1.Cell Membrane

1.1.1.      Describe the structure of a plasma membrane

1.1.2.      List the functions of the plasma membrane

1.1.3.      Compare and contrast the terms permeable, impermeable and semipermeable membranes

1.1.4.      Describe what happens during diffusion and give examples

1.1.5.      Describe a concentration gradient

1.1.6.      Explain what factors influence the rate of diffusion.

1.1.7.      Describe what happens during facilitated diffusion and give examples.

1.1.8.      Contrast diffusion and facilitated diffusion

1.1.9.      Describe a carrier molecule and predict what will happen to the movement of molecules during facilitated diffusion if there is a shortage of carrier molecules

1.1.10.  Describe what happens during osmosis

1.1.11.  Compare and contrast the terms isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic and give examples.

1.1.12.  Describe what happens during active transport

1.1.13.  Compare and contrast what happens during exocytosis and endocytosis

1.1.14.  Compare and contrast the terms pinocytosis and phagocytosis.

1.1.15.  Compare the use of ATP in diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis and active transport

1.2.Cell Structure and Mitosis

1.2.1.      Identify the organelles of an animal cell

1.2.2.      Illustrate the function of each major organelle in a cell

1.2.3.      Describe the function of mitosis

1.2.4.      Compare and contrast the terms n and 2n

1.2.5.      Describe the life cycle of a cell

2.      Integumentary System

2.1.Describe the functions of the integumentary system

2.2.List the dermal layers

2.3.Identify the primary tissue type in each dermal layer

2.4.List the order of the epidermal layers

2.5.List the types of sensory receptors are found in the integumentary system

2.6.Describe how epidermis receives nutrients

2.7.Describe what role the integumentary system plays in thermoregulation

2.7.1.      Describe what happens when the body is cold in terms of the dermal circulation

2.7.2.      Describe what happens when the body is warm in terms of dermal circulation and sweat glands

2.8.Identify the homeostatic determinations a physician can make by looking at the color of the skin (is the skin yellow, is it blue etc)

2.9.Describe the development and function of fingerprints

2.10.        Describe the function of karatincytes

2.11.        Describe the function of melanocytes

2.11.1.  Identify what stimulates the production of melanin

2.11.2.  Describe the function of melanin in terms of UV protection

2.11.3.  Describe the damage the UV radiation can do to the integumentary system

2.12.        Describe other factors that affect the color of the epidermis

2.13.        List the types of sweat glands

2.13.1.  Compare and contrast the functions of eccrine and apocrine glands

2.13.2.  Describe the function of cerminous glands

2.13.3.  Describe the function of sebaceous glands

2.14.        Compare and contrast the functions of the major dermal receptors

2.15.        Burns

2.15.1.  Identify is the difference between first, second, & third degree burns

2.15.2.  Describe problems faced by a burn patient

2.15.3.  Describe the rule of nines

3.      Skeletal System

3.1.Describe the function of the skeletal system

3.2.List the types of cartilage associated with the skeletal system

3.2.1.      Identify the most common type of cartilage

3.3.Label the structures and describe the function of the parts of a long bone:

3.3.1.      Diaphysis

3.3.2.      Epiphyses

3.3.3.       Periosteum

3.3.4.      epiphyseal plate

3.3.5.      medullary cavity

3.4.Describe the function of the epiphyseal plate

3.5.Compare and contrast the difference between spongy and compact bone


3.6.1.      Identify the functional unit of compact (cortical) bone

3.6.2.      Identify the structures in of compact (cortical) boneís (osteonic) canal

3.7.Osteoblasts and Osteoclasts

3.7.1.      Describe the function of an osteoblast

3.7.2.      Describe the function of an osteoclast

3.7.3.      Compare and contrast the difference between osteoblasts and osteoclasts

3.7.4.      Describe the function of osteoblasts  and osteoclasts in osteogenesis

3.7.5.      Describe the function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in bone remodeling

3.7.6.      Describe the role osteoclasts and osteoblasts play in osteoporosis


3.8.1.      Identify intramembranous ossification and in what type of bone it occurs.

3.8.2.      Identify endochondrial ossification and in what type of bone it occurs.

3.8.3.      Compare and contrast intramembranous ossification and endochondrial ossification


3.9.1.      Identify  the function of parathyroid hormone  and calcitonin (I will give you a hint it responds to low Calcium levels in the blood)