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STUDY GUIDE TEST 1

INTRODUCTION, CHEMISTRY & DNA

 

1.      Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation

1.1.Scientific Method

1.1.1.      Define the term theory

1.1.2.      Define the term hypothesis.

1.1.3.      Determine if a statement is a theory or hypothesis

1.1.4.      State what characteristics determine a good hypothesis.

1.1.5.      Identify what  the scientific method is

1.1.6.      Apply the scientific method to everyday matters.

1.1.7.      Describe what a controlled experiment is and how to set one up.

1.1.8.      Identify the controls and variables in an experiment.

1.1.9.      Compare science and pseudo science

1.1.10.  Identify how pseudo science is different from real science.

1.2.Levels of Organization & Life

1.2.1.      List the levels of organization (atomsmoleculesorganellescells etc) in order.

1.2.2.      Describe what an organelle is

1.2.3.      Describe the characteristics of life

1.3.Homeostasis

1.3.1.      Define the term homeostasis

1.3.2.      Describe and identify the mechanisms that maintain homeostasis

1.3.3.      Define the terms negative and positive feedback

1.3.4.      Describe how negative and positive feedback work and give examples

1.3.5.      Describe the advantages and the disadvantages of negative feedback

1.3.6.      Describe the advantages and the disadvantage of positive feedback.

1.3.7.      Determine which feedback system is the body more likely to use in homeostasis and why

2.      Chapter 2  Chemistry Comes Alive

2.1.Atomic Structure

2.1.1.      Define the term element

2.1.2.      Define the term atom

2.1.3.      Identify specific elements

2.1.4.      Define the term proton and identify the electrical charge that goes with it

2.1.5.      Define the term neutron and identify the electrical charge that goes with it

2.1.6.      Define the term electron and identify the electrical charge the goes with it

2.1.7.      Predict the charge of an atom when the number of electrons changes

2.1.8.      Predict the change in mass of an atom when the number of neutrons changes

2.1.9.      Describe why the number of protons does not change

2.1.10.  Define the term ion

2.1.11.  Define the  term isotope

2.1.12.  Determine the charge of an ion

2.1.13.  Contrast the difference between an ion and an isotope

2.1.14.  Define the terms atomic symbol and demonstrate how to write one

2.1.15.  Define the term atomic number

2.1.16.  Describe how the atomic number relates to the number of protons and the number of electrons

2.1.17.  Define the term atomic mass

2.1.18.  Define the term atomic weight

2.1.19.  Define the term valance shell

2.1.20.  Find the number of electrons in a valance shell

2.2.Chemical Reactions

2.2.1.      Distinguish between a product and a reactant

2.2.2.      Describe a decomposition reaction

2.2.3.      Describe a synthesis reaction

2.2.4.      Identify what factors will affect the speed of a reaction

2.2.5.      Describe a catalyst and how it affects the speed of a reaction

2.2.6.      Define the term molecule

2.2.7.      Define the term compound

2.2.8.      Define the term solution

2.2.9.      Define the term solute

2.2.10.  Contrast the differences between a molecule and an atom

2.2.11.  Be able to read a molecular formula.  (i.e. COcontains how many of which atoms)

2.2.12.  Define the term ionic bond

2.2.13.  Define the term covalent bond

2.2.14.  Compare and contrast covalent and ionic bonds

2.2.15.  Define the term polar covalent bond

2.2.16.  Define the term nonpolar covalent bond

2.2.17.  Compare and contrast polar and nonpolar covalent bonds

2.2.18.  Describe a hydrogen bond

2.3.pH

2.3.1.      Describe the pH scale

2.3.2.      Define the term acidic in relationship to hydrogen ion content

2.3.3.      Define the term basic in relationship to hydrogen ion content

2.4.Water

2.4.1.      Describe water in terms of polar covalent bonds

2.4.2.      Describe the relationship between partial charges and surface tension

2.4.3.      Describe the qualities of water that make it an important biological medium

3.      Organic Chemistry

3.1.Introduction

3.1.1.      Describe the term monomer

3.1.2.      Describe the term polymer

3.1.3.      Describe the characteristics of organic molecules

3.1.4.      Compare organic molecules and inorganic molecules

3.2.Carbohydrates

3.2.1.      Describe the term carbohydrate

3.2.2.      Relate carbohydrates to energy needs

3.2.3.      Compare and contrast a monocarbohydrate like glucose to a polysaccharide like starch.

3.3.Lipid/Fatty Acids

3.3.1.      Describe the term fatty acid

3.3.2.      Describe the characteristics of lipids

3.3.3.      Compare and contrast unsaturated and saturated fats

3.4.Amino Acid/Proteins

3.4.1.      Describe the term amino acid

3.4.2.      Compare an amino acid to a peptide and a protein

3.4.3.      Compare and contrast structural and functional proteins

3.4.4.      List the levels of protein structure

3.4.5.      Identify the levels primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure

4.      Chapter 4  Metabolism

4.1.Enzymes

4.1.1.      Describe the function of an enzyme

4.1.2.      Describe the function of a catalyst

4.1.3.      Identify the feature of the enzyme that is critical for its function.

4.2.Nucleotide

4.2.1.      Describe the term nucleotide

4.2.2.      Define the abbreviation ATP

4.2.3.      Describe the importance of ATP to biological systems

4.3.DNA

4.3.1.      Define the abbreviations DNA and RNA

4.3.2.      Describe the structure of DNA and identify its location in a cell

4.3.3.      Explain the function of DNA in relationship to genetic information

4.3.4.      List the nucleotides that make up DNA

4.3.5.      Compare the list of nucleotides in DNA to that in RNA

4.3.6.      Describe what is meant by complementary binding and be able to give examples using cytosine, guanine, adenine, thymine and in RNA uracil

4.3.7.      Discuss the steps involved in replicating DNA

4.3.8.      Describe the structures of RNA and where they can be found

4.3.9.      Identify the functions of mRNA, tRNA and rRNA.

4.3.10.  Discuss the steps involved in transcribing DNA into mRNA

4.3.11.  Discuss the steps involved in translating mRNA into tRNA

4.3.12.  Discuss the steps involved in creating an amino acid sequence from tRNA

4.3.13.  Define the term triplet and identify how many nucleotides it contains

4.3.14.  Given a series of DNA triplets or they should be able to replicate the strand, transcribe the strand and translate the strand into an amino acid sequence

4.3.15.  Define the term codon and identify how many nucleotides it contains

4.3.16.  Given a series of mRNA codons or be able to transcribe the strand back to DNA or translate the strand into an amino acid sequence

4.3.17.  Define the term anticodon and identify how many nucleotides it contains

4.3.18.  Given a series of tRNA anticodons or be able to list the corresponding DNA triplet or mRNA codon

4.3.19.  Relate the terms triplet, codon and anticodon.

4.3.20.  Given a series of DNA triplets or they should be able to replicate the strand, transcribe the strand and translate the strand into an amino acid sequence