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Muscle and Brain Anatomy

Most people have problems understanding what the function of a muscle is and where its insertion points are.  Remember the insertion point is on the bone that moves.  The origin is on the bone that does not move.

You will need to be familiar with the following material:

1.      Be able to identify slides of the following tissues: (look at the histology page on the web-site  to help you with this)

1.1.   Cardiac muscle

1.2.   Smooth muscle

1.3.   Skeletal muscle


2.      Questions concerning movement will refer to the primary functions of muscles so know all of the movements:

2.1.   Flexion

2.2.   Extension

2.3.   Hyperextension

2.4.   Dorsiflexion.

2.5.   Plantar

2.6.   Abduction

2.7.   Adduction

2.8.   Eversion

2.9.   Elevation

2.10.                    Depression


3.      Identify the primary function or movement (flexor, extender, abductor, adductor, etc) of each listed muscle


4.      Describe what the terms agonist and antagonist mean


5.      Be able to identify the antagonist of these muscles


6.      Identify the origin points of each listed muscle


7.      Identify  the insertion points of each listed muscle


8.      Identify  how muscles are named and why certain muscles have their names


I).   Facial Expression

1.      Frontalis

2.      Occipitalis

3.      Orbicularis Oculi

4.      Zygomaticus

5.      Orbicularis oris

6.      Platysma

II).   Mastication

7.      Masseter

8.      Temporalis

9.      Buccinator


III). Muscles of the Neck

10.  Sternocleidomastoid

11.  Hyoid Muscles

12.  Splenius Capitis


IV). Movements of the Scapula

13.  Pectoralis minor

14.  Serratus anterior

15.  Trapezius

16.  Rhomboids


V). Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Joint

17.  Pectoralis major

18.  Deltoid

19.  Latissimus Dorsi

20.  Infraspinatus

21.  Supraspinatus

22.  Teres major

23.  Coracobrachialis


VI). Muscles Crossing the Elbow

24.  Bicep Brachii

25.  Brachialis

26.  Brachioradialis

27.  Triceps brachii


VII). Muscles of the Forearm 

28.  Pronator teres

29.  Pronator Quadratus

30.  Palmaris longus

31.  Flexor Carpi Radialis

32.  Flexor Carpi Ulnaris

33.  Supinator

34.  Extensor Carpi Radialis

35.  Extensor Carpi Ulnaris


VII). Movement of the Fingers

36.  Extensor Digitorum

37.  Flexor Digitorum


VIII). Muscles of the Vertebral Column

38.  Erector spinae

a.       Iliocostalis

b.      Spinalis

c.       Longissimus

IX). Muscles of Breathing

39.  Intercostal:

a.       Internal

b.      External

40.  Diaphragm


X). Muscles of the Abdominal Wall

41.  Rectus abdominis

42.  External oblique

43.  Internal oblique

44.  Transverse abdominis

XI). Muscles of the Pelvic Floor

45.  Pelvic Diaphragm

46.  Urogenital Diaphragm

XII). Muscles That Move the Thigh & Leg

47.  Iliacus

48.  Psoas major

49.  Adductor magnus

50.  Adductor longus

51.  Gracialis

52.  Gluteus maximus

53.  Gluteus medius

54.  Gluteus minimus

55.  Tensor fasciae latae

56.  Iliotibial tract

57.  Hamstrings

a.       Biceps femoris

b.      Semitendinous

c.       Semimembranosus

58.  Sarortius

59.  Quadriceps femoris:

a.       Rectus femoris

b.      Vastus lateralis

c.       Vastus medialis

d.      Vastus intermedius

e.       (Patellar tendon & ligament)

XIII). Movements of Ankles & Toes

60.  Tibialis anterior

61.  Fibularis longus

62.  Extensor digitorum longus

63.   Gastrocnemius

64.   Soleus

65.  (Calcaneal tendon)










Brain Structures

1.      Identify the following structures

1.1.   Sulcus

1.2.   Fissure

1.3.   Gyrus

2.      Identify the location and general functions of the:

2.1.   Frontal cortex

2.2.   Temporal cortex

2.3.   Parietal Cortex

2.4.   Occipital Cortex

3.      Identify in which cortex each of the following senses occur

3.1.   Auditory

3.2.   Motor

3.3.   Language/speech

3.4.   Logic & Reasoning

3.5.   Vision

4.      Describe what an association area is and find the corresponding association areas for the above list.

5.      Identify what structures make up the brain stem

6.      Identify what structures make up the diencephalon

7.      Describe what the blood brain barrier is and what it protects the brain from.

8.      Identify the location and function of the following brain structures

8.1.   Cerebral Cortex

8.2.   Diencephalon

8.2.1.      Hypothalamus

8.2.2.      Thalamus

8.3.   Brain Stem

8.3.1.      Midbrain

8.3.2.      Pons

8.3.3.      Medulla Oblongata

8.4.   Cerebellum

8.5.   Limbic System

8.6.   Reticular formation