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STUDY GUIDE PRACTICAL I

BODY ORGANIZATION (regions, directions, cavities, membranes, and systems), MICROSCOPES & EPITHELIAL TISSUES

 

Know the spelling of all terms

1.      DIRECTIONAL TERMS

1.1. Describe the anatomical position

1.2.Identify directional terms, and how to relate them 

ie.  the stomach is inferior to the heart but superior to the bladder

1.2.1.      Right or left

1.2.2.      Superior

1.2.3.      Inferior

1.2.4.      Anterior or ventral

1.2.5.      Posterior or dorsal

1.2.6.      Medial

1.2.7.      Lateral

1.2.8.      Intermediate

1.2.9.      Distal

1.2.10.  Proximal

1.2.11.  Superficial

1.2.12.  Deep


 

2.      REGIONAL TERMS

2.1.Identify all regional terms

2.1.1.      AXIAL (HEAD)

2.1.1.1.Cephalic

2.1.1.2.Frontal

2.1.1.3.Orbital

2.1.1.4.Nasal

2.1.1.5.Buccal

2.1.1.6.Mental

2.1.1.7.Occipital

2.1.1.8.Cervical

2.1.2.      AXIAL (TRUNK)

2.1.2.1.Thoracic

2.1.2.2.Sternal

2.1.2.3.Mammary

2.1.2.4.Pectoral

2.1.2.5.Abdominal

2.1.2.6.Umbilical

2.1.2.7.Inguinal

2.1.2.8.Pubic

2.1.2.9.Vertebral

2.1.2.10.                    Dorsum

2.1.2.11.                    Lumbar

2.1.2.12.                    Sacral

2.1.2.13.                    Perineal

 

2.1.3.      APPENDICULAR (PECTORAL GIRDLE & ARM)

2.1.3.1.Acromial

2.1.3.2.Scapular

2.1.3.3.Axillary

2.1.3.4.Brachial

2.1.3.5.Cubital

2.1.3.6.Antecubital

2.1.3.7.Antebrachial

2.1.3.8.Carpal

2.1.3.9.Palmar

2.1.3.10.                    Pollex

2.1.3.11.                    Digital

2.1.4.      APPENDICULAR (PELVIC GIRDLE & LEG)

2.1.4.1.Gluteal

2.1.4.2.Femoral

2.1.4.3.Patellar

2.1.4.4.Popliteal

2.1.4.5.Crural

2.1.4.6.Peroneal

2.1.4.7.Tarsal

2.1.4.8.Calcaneal

2.1.4.9.Plantar

2.1.4.10.                    Hallux

2.1.4.11.                    Digital

3.      BODY CAVITIES & MEMBRANES

3.1.Identify of the body cavities and the major organs in each and what divides the thoracic and abdominal cavities

3.1.1.      Dorsal Body Cavity

3.1.1.1.Cranial Cavity

3.1.1.2.Vertebral or spinal cavity       

3.1.2.      Ventral Body Cavity

3.1.2.1.Thoracic (above the diaphragm)

3.1.2.1.1.      Plural Cavities

3.1.2.1.2.      Pericardial Cavity

3.1.2.1.3.      Mediastinum

3.1.2.2. Abdominopelvic Cavity (below the diaphragm)

3.1.2.2.1.      Abdominal Cavity

3.1.2.2.2.      Pelvic Cavity

3.2.Identify the membranes and the differences between parietal and visceral

3.2.1.      Parietal Serosa

3.2.1.1.Parietal pericardium

3.2.1.2.Parietal pleura

3.2.1.3.Parietal peritoneum

3.2.2.      Visceral Serosa

3.2.2.1.Visceral pericardium

3.2.2.2.Visceral pleura

3.2.2.3.Visceral peritoneum

4.      BODY PLANES & SECTIONS

4.1.Identify the body planes and sections

4.1.1.      Sagittal plane

4.1.2.      Frontal plane or coronal plane

4.1.3.      Transverse or cross section

5.      ABDOMINOPELVIC REGIONS & QUADRANTS

5.1.Identify that the abdominopelvic regions and quadrants and that they only apply to organs of the abdomen and pelvic cavities not the organs of the thoracic cavity      

5.2. Identify the regions and quadrants

5.2.1.      Regions

5.2.1.1. umbilical region

5.2.1.2. epigastric region

5.2.1.3. hypogastric (pubic) region

5.2.1.4. right and left iliac (inguinal) regions

5.2.1.5. right and left lumbar regions

5.2.1.6. right and left hypochondriac regions

5.2.2.      Quadrants

5.2.2.1.Upper right

5.2.2.2.Lower right

5.2.2.3.Upper left

5.2.2.4.Lower left

6.      SYSTEMS

6.1.Identify the major systems, functions, and organs

6.1.1.      integumentary

6.1.2.      skeletal

6.1.3.      muscular

6.1.4.      nervous

6.1.5.      endocrine

6.1.6.      cardiovascular

6.1.7.      lymphatic

6.1.8.      reproductive

6.1.9.      respiratory

6.1.10.  urinary

7.      Microscopes 

7.1.Identify the parts of a microscope

7.1.1.      ocular lens

7.1.2.      objective lens

7.1.3.      nosepiece

7.1.4.      base

7.1.5.      arm

7.1.6.      fine focus

7.1.7.      course focus

7.1.8.      stage

7.1.9.      light source

7.1.10.  condenser

7.1.11.  iris diaphragm level

7.1.12.  stage

7.1.13.  mechanical stage knobs

7.1.14.  stage clips

7.1.15.  scanning lens (total magnification)

7.1.16.  higher power lens (total magnification)

7.2. Identify  how to trouble shot problems with focusing a microscope

7.2.1.      field of view

7.2.2.      working distance

7.2.3.      parfocal ability

7.2.4.      resolving power

7.3.  Describe what happens to field of view when the power is increased

7.4. Describe  how the microscope turns everything upside down and backward

7.5. Be able  to calculate total magnification

8.      Epithelial Tissues 

8.1. Identify the 4 types of tissue

8.1.1.      epithelial

8.1.2.      connective

8.1.3.      muscle

8.1.4.      nervous

8.2.Describe  how epithelial tissues are classified

8.3. Describe the differences between simple and stratified

8.4. Be able to identify squamous, cuboidal and columnar cells

8.5. Describe the general characteristics of epithelial tissues.

8.6.Be able to identify each of these epithelial tissues.

8.6.1.      simple squamous epithelium

8.6.2.      simple cuboidal epithelium

8.6.3.      simple columnar epithelium

8.6.4.      pseudostratified columnar epithelium

8.6.5.      stratified squamous epithelium

8.6.6.      stratified columnar epithelium

8.6.7.      transitional epithelium

8.7. Identify where these tissues can be found (organs) and their general functions

8.8.Describe the difference between what exocrine and endocrine means

8.9. Identify what type of tissue contains exocrine glands.