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Chemistry:  Organic Compounds

 

I). Organic compounds

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Contain carbon

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covalently bonded

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binds with hydrogen

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units bind together

II). Monomers & Polymers

        Monomer is 1 subunit type of an organic compound.

        Polymer is a series of monomers.

Comparisons of Units & Groupings

 

Smallest Unit

Larger Grouping

Atom

Element

Molecule

Compound

Monomer

Polymer

Organic Monomers and Polymers

 

Types of Organic Molecules

Monomers

Polymers

 

Carbohydrates

Simple Carbohydrates

or monocarbohydrates

(glucose)

Complex Carbohydrate

or polycarbohydrates

(starch)

Lipids

Fatty acids

Saturated fats

Polyunsaturated fats

Amino Acids

Amino Acids

Peptides & Proteins

Nucleic Acids

Nucleic Acids

DNA & RNA

III). Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.

Carbohydrates provide readily easily used cellular fuel. 

        A). Monosaccharide  

GLUCOSE:  C6H12O6

glucose

http://www.biochem.arizona.edu/classes/bioc462/

        B). Disaccharide

        C). Polysaccharide

 

IV). Lipids

Lipids are organic compounds that are insoluble in water but are soluble in other lipids.

        A). Neutral Fats

3 fatty acids + 1 glycerol  = triglyceride

triglyceride

http://biology.unm.edu/ccouncil/Biology_124/Summaries/Macromol.html

fat molecules

http://www.nature.com/horizon/

http://www.search.com/reference/Trans_fat

B).  Saturated fats and polyunsaturated fats

Saturated fats: only single covalent bonds.

Polyunsaturated fats: double or triple bonds.

bulletcis
bullettrans

       C). Phospholipids

The tail is nonpolar the head is polar.

phospolipids in a membrane

http://nanopedia.case.edu/NWPage.php?page=cell.membranes

        D). Steroids

steroid

 

V). Protein

                     Chains of amino acids linked by peptides bonds

        A).  amino acids.

http://www.hcc.mnscu.edu/chem/V.27/page_id_17100.html

AMINO ACIDS

(monomer)

PEPTIDES

(several amino acids)

PROTEINS

(many peptides)

B).  Fibrous and globular proteins

fibrous = structural proteins

globular  = functional proteins

                        

        C). Structure level of proteins:

                    i). Primary structure:  

                    ii). Secondary structure:  

                    iii). Tertiary structure

                    iv). Quaternary structure:  

Protein geometry

     

Proteins have a specific geometry like a key in a lock

The structure is the result of the specific arrangement of amino acids (primary structure)

        D). Enzymes

Enzymes are globular proteins that act as biochemical catalysts.

They sometimes contain a non-protein part such as a metal (cofactor) or a vitamin (coenzyme)

Enzyme function

enzyme reactions

 i). The enzyme binds the substrate.

                         At a very specific active site

ii). The enzyme-substrate complex undergoes an internal change that forms the product

iii).  Releases the product;  free to attach to another substrate

 

VI). Nucleic Acids

A). Structure

B). The 2 major classes include

Nucleotide Groups for DNA & RNA

DNA

RNA

Adenine

Adenine

Guanine

Guanine

Cytosine

Cytosine

Thymine

Uracil

C). Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

ATP is an t contains a high energy phosphate bond.

Chemical energy is stored in this high energy bond and released when the cell needs energy.