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DNA

 

Chemistry:  DNA

(deoxyribonucleic acid)

Nucleotide Groups for DNA & RNA

DNA

RNA

Adenine

Adenine

Guanine

Guanine

Cytosine

Cytosine

Thymine

Uracil

DNA Carries genetic material

that codes for proteins through

transcription and translation of RNA.

 

 

I). History

    1). Watson & Crick  proposed double helix structure in 1953.

    2). Information gathered  X-ray diffraction studies from Rosalind Franklin.

II). DNA: The Double Helix

         A).  DNA is made:    

http://www.biologyjunction.com/nucleotide_model_preap.htm

B). There are only 4 DNA nucleotides.

CYTOSINE

GUANINE

ADENINE

THYMINE

 

C).  Complimentary binding

    thus:

CYTOSINE-GUANINE

GUANINE-CYTOSINE

ADENINE-THYMINE

THYMINE-ADENINE

ALWAYS

D) Double Helix

dna molecule

http://www.sciencewithmrmilstid.com/category/biological-science/

 

III). Replication of DNA

A). The chromatin DNA helices unwinds

B).  DNA molecule separates 

C).  Template for creating a new strand.

D).  Complementary base pairing

DNA DNA

        E). DNA polymerase.

        F). 2 new strands of DNA

 

IV). Protein Synthesis

A). Summary

proteint synthesis

http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/scireport/appendixa.asp

B). RNA = ribonucleic acid

1.  Structure

2.  complementary pairing:

Thymine has been replaced with URACIL

ADENINE : URACIL

URACIL : ADENINE

CYTOSINE : GUANINE

GUANINE : CYTOSINE

ALWAYS

3. Types of RNA

i). Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

                   

 ii). Messenger RNA (mRNA)

            

iii). Transfer RNA (tRNA)

C). Definitions

gene:

triplet: 3 base codes of DNA

codon: 3 base codes of mRNA 

anticodon: 3 base pairs of tRNA

        D). Transcription:

1.  The creation of mRNA

THYMINE : ADENINE

ADENINE: URACIL

GUANINE : CYTOSINE

CYTOSINE : GUANINE

2. . The mRNA travels to the cytoplasm to a ribosome

E). Translation

1).  mRNA binds to the ribosome

2). tRNA that holds a specific amino acid

3). tRNA binds to a ribosome

4). Complementary base pairs (anticodons) in the tRNA bind to the mRNA (codons).

URACIL : ADENINE

ADENINE: URACIL

GUANINE : CYTOSINE

CYTOSINE : GUANINE

5).  Polypeptide synthesis involves:

a).  initiation

b). elongation

c). termination

d).  intron

e).  exon

Summary

 

DNA

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RNA

(tRNA, mRNA, rRNA)

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Peptide Chains

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Proteins

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Enzymes that allow all of the body’s chemistry to occur

+ Hormones that signal activity

 + Structural Proteins which support the body