AP Notes

Body Anatomical Directions Study Guide

Body Orientation and Systems Lab Assignment

Language of Anatomy

Body Orientation & Systems

michealangelos portriat of a man

Michelangelo's Portrait of a Man

http://paramedicine.wikispaces.com/Anatomic+Position

 

I). Reference point for anatomical descriptions:

The body is standing with feet together and arms at the side palms face forward and thumbs are pointed away from the body.

 

body directions

http://dracrocker.com/bi107-human_biology

II). Directional terms

Right or left based on the person being viewed.

A). Right and Left

B). Superior (cranial)

C). Inferior (caudal)

D). Anterior or ventral

E). Posterior or dorsal

 

 

F). Medial

G). Lateral

  • bilateral
  • ipsilateral
  • contralateral

H). Intermediate

I). Proximal

midline directions
  http://pilates.about.com/od/p
J). Distal

K). Superficial

L). Deep

M). Peripheral (also means outward)

N). Central

 

body directions

 

III. Other Terms

A).  Medullary

B).  Cortical

C).  Apical

D). Basal

E).  Lumen

F).  Endo-

G).  Epi-

H).  Peri-

I). Hyper

J). Hypo

 
 

IV). Body Planes and Section

The sectioning (dividing) of the body or body parts by using imaginary 2 dimensional lines or planes.

A). Sections  

longitudinal cut

cross section

oblique cut

longitudinal cross-section or transverse oblique
B). Midline

A line that runs through the longitudinal middle of the body. 

IT IS NOT A PLANE.

IT IS A LINE

C).  Planes

    1). Sagittal Plane

  • midsagittal
  • parasagittal

    2). Frontal Plane or Coronal Plane

    3). Transverse or Cross Section

 

body planes
V). Abdominopelvic Regions and Quadrants

ONLY APPLIES TO THE ABDOMINAL and PELVIC CAVITIES

NOT THE THORACIC CAVITY

Or the organs in the thoracic cavity

 

abdominal regions
A).  Regions

RIGHT HYPOCHONDRIAC REGION

EPIGASTRIC

REGION

LEFT HYPOCHONDRIAC REGION

RIGHT   LUMBAR REGION

UMBILICAL

REGION

LEFT LUMBAR REGION

RIGHT ILIAC REGION

HYPOGASTRIC

(PUBIC) REGION

LEFT ILIAC REGION

 

B).  Quadrants

Right

Upper

Quadrant

(RUQ)

Left

Upper

Quadrant

(LUQ)

Right

Lower

Quadrant

(RLQ)

Left

Lower

Quadrant

(LLQ)

V).  Organ System Overview

systems overviews

A). Integumentary System (skin)
  •   epidermal & dermal regions
  •   cutaneous sense organs
  •   cutaneous glan

 

 

integumentary system

  B). Skeletal System
  •  bones
  •  cartilage
  •  ligaments
  •  joints

 

skeletal and muscular system

 

C).  Muscular System

  •  skeletal muscle
  •  tendons
D). Nervous System
  •  brain
  •  spinal cord
  •  nerves
  •  sensory receptors

 

E). Endocrine System
  •  pituitary
  •  thyroid
  •  parathyroid
  •  adrenal
  •  pineal glands
  •  ovaries
  •  testes
  •  pancreas

endocrine system

F). Cardiovascular System
  •  heart
  •  blood vessels
  •  blood

 

 G). Lymphatic System
  •  lymphatic vessels
  •  lymph nodes
  •  spleen
  •  thymus
  •  tonsils
  •  lymphoid tissues

cardivasular and lymphatic system

H). Respiratory System
  • lungs
  • nasal passages
  • pharynx
  • larynx
  • trachea
  • bronchi

respiratory system

   I). Digestive System
  • oral cavity
  • esophagus
  • stomach
  •  small intestine
  •  large intestine
  • teeth
  • salivary glands
  • pancreas
  •  liver
  • gallbladder

digestive

 J). Urinary
  • kidneys
  • ureters
  • bladder
  • urethra

urinary system

K). Reproductive

        Male

  •  testes
  • scrotum
  • penis
  • prostate
  • duct system

     Female

  •  ovaries
  • uterine tubes
  • uterus
  • vagina
  • mammary glands

 

reproductive system

Organ System Mnemonic

Sir: I'm nervous about reproducing with the rest. Uri must dig into the legal end.

 

The organ system:

circulatory

immune (lymphatic)

nervous

reproduction

respiratory

urinary

muscle

digestive

integumentary

endocrine

MURDER INC

 

muscle

urinary

reproduction

digestive

endocrine

respiratory

integumentary

nervous

circulatory