Schematic Form: Let’s illustrate this structure by putting the previous example—plus a new one—into schematic form.

INITlAL ENTHYMEME: Women should be allowed to join combat units because the image of women in combat would help eliminate gender stereotypes.

    CLAIM: Women should be allowed to join combat units.

    STATED REASON: because the image of women in combat would help eliminate gender stereotypes

    UNSTATED ASSUMPTION: Gender stereotypes are harmful and should be eliminated.

 

INITIAL ENTHYMEME: Cocaine and heroin should be legalized because legalization would eliminate the black market in drugs.

    CLAIM: Cocaine and heroin should be legalized.

    STATED REASON: because legalization would eliminate the black market in drugs.

    UNSTATED ASSUMPTION: An action that eliminates the black market in drugs is good. (Or, to state the assumption more fully, the benefits to society of eliminating the black market in drugs outweigh the negative effects to society of legalizing drugs.)

 

THE TOULMIN SYSTEM--Based on an initial enthymeme (the claim and reason[s]), a Toulmin schema consists of the additional following parts:

WARRANT: The first key term, it is the name we will now use for the unstated assumption that turns an enthymeme into a complete logical structure.

INITlAL ENTHYMEME: Women should be allowed to join combat units because the image of women in combat would help eliminate gender stereotypes.

    CLAIM: Women should be allowed to join combat units.

    STATED REASON: because the image of women in combat would help eliminate gender stereotypes

    WARRANT: Gender stereotypes are harmful and should be eliminated.

 

INITIAL ENTHYMEME: Cocaine and heroin should be legalized because legalization would eliminate the black market in drugs.

    CLAIM: Cocaine and heroin should be legalized.

    STATED REASON: because legalization would eliminate the black market in drugs

    WARRANT: An action that eliminates the black market in drugs is good.

 

GROUNDS and BACKING--

Grounds are the supporting evidence—facts, data, statistics, testimony or examples—for the Stated Reasons

    CLAIM: Women should be allowed to join combat units.

    STATED REASON: because the image of women combat would help eliminate gender stereotypes

    GROUNDS: data and evidence showing that a chief stereotype of women is that they are soft and nurturing whereas men are tough and aggressive The image of women in combat gear packing a rifle, driving a tank, firing a machine gun from a foxholes or radioing for artillery. Support would shock people into seeing women not as "soft and nurturing but as equal to men.

 

    CLAIM: Cocaine and heroin should be legalized.

    STATED REASON: because legalization would eliminate the black market in drugs

    GROUNDS: data and evidence showing how legalizing cocaine and heroin would eliminate the black market (statistics, data, and examples describing the size and effect of current black market, followed by arguments showing how selling cocaine and heroin legally in state-controlled stores would lower the price and eliminate the need to buy them from drug dealers)

 

Backing is the evidence that supports the warrant.

    WARRANT: Gender stereotypes are harmful and should be eliminated.

    BACKING: arguments showing how the existing stereotype of soft and nurturing women and tough and aggressive men is harmful to both men and women (examples of how the stereotype keeps men from developing their nurturing sides and women from developing autonomy and power; examples of other benefits that come from eliminating gender stereotype include more egalitarian society, no limits on what persons can pursue; deeper respect for both sexes)

 

    WARRANT: An action that eliminates the black market in drugs is good.

    BACKING: an argument supporting the warrant by showing why eliminating the black market in drugs is good (statistics and examples about the ill effects of the black market, data on crime and profiteering, evidence that huge profits make drug dealing more attractive than ordinary jobs, the high cost of crime created by the black market, the cost to taxpayers of waging the war against drugs, the high cost of prisons to house incarcerated drug dealers, etc.)

 

CONDITIONS OF REBUTTAL --how a shrewd adversary would try to refute our argument.

    Rebutting the reasons and grounds: evidence that letting women join combat units wouldn’t overcome gender stereotyping (very few women would want to join combat units; those that did would be considered freaks; most girls would still identify with Barbie doll models, not with female infantry)

    Rebutting the warrant and backing: arguments showing it is important to maintain gender role differences because they are biologically based, divinely inspired, or otherwise important culturally; women should be nurturers and mothers, not fighters; essential nature of "womanhood" sullied by putting women in combat.

 

The conditions of rebuttal for the legalization-of-drugs argument might look like this:

CONDITIONS OF REBUTTAL:

        Rebutting the reason and grounds: Ending the black market is good unless taxes on legal drugs would keep the price high enough that a black market would still exist; unless new kinds of illegal designer drugs would be developed and sold on the black market.

        Rebutting the warrant and backing: Ending the black market is good unless the increased numbers of drug users and addicts were unacceptably high; unless harmful changes in social structure due to the acceptance ofdrugs were too severe; unless the health and economic consequences of increased number of drug users were catastrophic; unless social costs to families and communities associated with addiction or erratic behavior during drug-induced "highs" were too great.

 

QUALIFIER—limits the force of a claim and indicate the degree of its probable truth